Toowoomba City Hall (Darling Downs, Queensland)
Toowoomba City Hall, the city's third town hall, was built in 1900 to a design by Willoughby Powell on the site of the School of Arts. When first constructed, City Hall incorporated municipal offices and council chambers, rooms for a school of arts, a technical college and public hall.
A settlement was established on the present site of Drayton in 1842, and a mail service commenced in December 1845. A survey of Drayton in 1850, the third to be carried out, followed a severe drought at the end of the 1840s which taxed Drayton's water supply. This shortage prompted many residents to consider moving to the Drayton Swamp Agricultural Area (The Swamp), where water was plentiful.
In 1853 a survey of the swamp area was carried out and land sales took place in November in the same year. The Swamp was subsequently named Toowoomba in 1858. On June 30 1860, a petition by Toowoomba residents seeking incorporation as a municipality was successful and proclamation occurred on 24 November 1860. Local government was established in November 1860, and elections were held in January 1861. One of the first projects undertaken was the construction of a town hall. Built in James Street, the simple timber structure was completed in January 1862.
In July 1865 the first section on railway line in Queensland was opened to Ipswich and by April 1867 the line reached Toowoomba, securing the town's future development. The 1860s saw the rapid expansion of Toowoomba with the founding of the Toowoomba Chronicle; the establishment of the first banking business, the construction of a gaol, the opening of the School of Arts and a Court House. The 1870s witnessed the opening of the Toowoomba Grammar School, the commencement of the foundry, the draining of the swamps and the commencement of waterworks. In 1887 Toowoomba was proclaimed a town.
As Toowoomba developed as the leading centre of the Darling Downs and surrounding areas, the prosperity was translated into impressive commercial and residential structures. The Council decided a new town hall was necessary and the first town hall was demolished and the new building, designed by Sydney architect Albert Myers, opened in 1880. The land on which the second town hall was built was later sold to the State Government who built the South Toowoomba Boys' School on the site in 1906.
When the second town hall was constructed, the form of Toowoomba as a town had not been firmly established, in particular the town centre was not well defined. Commercial activities tended to focus on the lower end of Russell Street, near the railway station, while government activities centred on the courthouse in Margaret Street, north-east of the town hall. By the 1890s it was evident that neither government or commercial activities were interested in moving. As a result of the increasing isolation of the town hall from the commercial centre, the Council began examining the feasibility of building another town hall in a more central location. A major problem was the acquisition of a suitable block of land, which, by this stage, would have meant considerable expense for the Council. A proposal that a new hall be built on the site of the School of Arts in Ruthven Street, a site acquired by the Toowoomba Council in 1887, was rejected on the basis that such an action would involve building a new School of Arts.
Later, however, when the School of Arts building was badly damaged by a fire on 21 June 1898, the proposal to build a new town hall on the site was again raised in a Council meeting and the motion was approved.
Prior to acquiring the site in Ruthven Street, the Council proceeded with a competition, with a prize of 30 guineas, for the design of a new town hall. Following approval to build a hall, a sub-committee examined the entries and recommended that William Hodgen be awarded first prize. However, Toowoomba Municipal Council Minutes from 3 October 1898 report that the recommendation was rejected. A new competition, with a prize of 25 guineas, was announced. Five entries were received and first prize was awarded to Willoughby Powell for his design entitled 'Sincerity'.
Willoughby Powell was born c1848 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England and died in Queensland in 1920. Powell emigrated to Australia in 1872 and worked for Brisbane architect Richard Gailey before joining the Queensland Public Works Department as a draftsman in 1874. From 1875 to 1877 he maintained a busy practice in Toowoomba, later claiming to have erected 'the majority of the principal buildings' there and in the surrounding district. Powell was eventually appointed to the permanent staff of the Works Department in 1899. Powell had to give up supervision of the construction of the Hall to Toowoomba architects, James Marks and Son, to receive his permanent appointment. Some of Powell's designs in the Toowoomba area include Toowoomba Grammar School  and master's residence in 1875; Jewish Synagogue, corner Herries and Neil Streets (1875-76); Gabbinbar  for Rev. William Lambie Nelson (1876) and additions to Clifford House  for the Hon. James Taylor in c1877 and the Warwick Town Hall. In its exterior form, Toowoomba City Hall is similar to the smaller and less elaborately decorated Warwick Town Hall, built of sandstone in the late 1880s.
Alexander Mayne's tender of £6440 was accepted on 22 November 1899, and on 20 February 1900, the Foundation Stone was laid by His Excellency Lieutenant-Governor Sir Samuel Griffiths. Officially opened by the Mayor of Toowoomba, Alderman Matthew Keefe, on December 12, 1900, City Hall was originally divided into three parts.
The School of Arts and Technical College on the first floor included class rooms and Committee Room at the southern end, a large Reading Room opening out to the first floor balcony and a Ladies' Reading Room and another class room at the northern end. A corridor led to another classroom and the Library located towards the western side on the first floor. The Public Hall or Theatre was at the western end of the building. There were a number of entrances to the Gallery including a ground floor Lobby and staircase on the northern wall of the building.
Contemporary publications describe the Hall as 'a spacious hall ten feet in width, and running right through to the theatre...on the ground floor are the municipal offices, those on the right being occupied by the Town Clerk and the Mayor. On the left hand side...comes the Rate Collector's Office and another for the Town Engineer....the Municipal Chamber...in finish and appointments...is very fine...The ceiling is particularly artistic, being stamped metal and picked out in soft and suitable colours'.
'Ascending the grand staircase...here [upper storey] are located the suite of rooms for the School of Arts and Technical College...Four rooms are provided for Technical College purposes, one being a particularly large classroom...the theatre [at the western end of the building]...carries 231 reserved stall seats, 108 second stall seats and 450 seats in the pit...The auditorium is a very handsome piece of work, being of stamped metal...underneath the stage are the dressing rooms'. There are a number of fireplaces located on the ground floor in the Council Chambers and in other offices, and on the upper level in the Reading Rooms and the Committee Room.
The original plans for the building did not provide for a public clock and the tower was planned as a much lower structure with a spire. During construction of the building, the matter of installing a clock was raised and at the council meeting of June 4, 1900, it was decided that a clock should be imported from England. The tower clock was installed in the early 1900s at a cost of about £400. It was made by Billett and Johnston, still one of Britain's great turret clock manufacturers. Its installation remains a monument to Toowoomba watchmaker Mr H. Walker, who for many years conducted business as Henry Walker and Son Ltd in Ruthven Street almost opposite Bell Street. Devonshire, it is believed, was the ship which brought the clock and bells to Australia. On one of the two bells that chime the quarter hour, the words S.S. Devonshire can still be seen. Of the original four ornamental pillars used in the external landscape works to City Hall, two were removed and installed at the old Toowoomba Showgrounds in Campbell Street as gates posts in the 1940s. On the closure of the showgrounds in 1985, when the Royal Agricultural Society moved to its current premises at Glenvale, the two pillars were dismantled and re-erected outside City Hall.
After its construction in 1900, City Hall was the venue for many uses. For more than sixty years the main administrative functions of the Toowoomba City Council were located in the hall. It has been an important venue for educational activities and housed for over 50 years, Toowoomba's main lending library. Situated on the first floor, the library began as the School of Arts Library.
A School of Arts committee was established in Toowoomba in the late 1850s, and the first School of Arts was erected in 1861 on land donated by Arthur Hodgson. This was the same site on which City Hall was erected in 1900. According to Toowoomba City Council records, a second and more substantial building was erected in 1877. This was the building that was demolished following a fire in 1898, to make way for the new town hall. For over 20 years, the library was well patronised, however, by the 1930s, the School of Arts committee began to have difficulties maintaining the collection. Lack of government funding, the growth of local circulation libraries and a diminishing number of subscribers added to the problems. Eventually, the library was taken over by the city council and remained in the hall until 1951. The School of Arts also conducted classes in technical and general education, one of the few avenues available to those wishing to pursue higher education. The hall was the venue for technical education for more than a decade. As the number of students increased, accommodation became a serious concern. In 1911, a purpose-built technical college  was erected in Margaret Street and the State government assumed responsibility for technical education from the School of Arts committee.
Added to City Hall's municipal and educational events, were the cultural and social events, which have been one of the building's most enduring functions. Such activities included public meetings, concerts and other musical events, drama and even sporting events, such as boxing and wrestling. Over time different requirements and standards have resulted in various alterations and additions to the building. The theatre has undergone more changes than any other part of the building. Prior to renovations in the 1940s, the raked floor and fixed seating of the auditorium limited its use. Whenever there was an audience facing the stage, the gentle fall was not a problem, however, it could not be used for dances or balls.
By the mid-1930s the need to improve the facilities became urgent. In early 1935 the Toowoomba Art Society was formed and one of their first activities was to lobby the Council "to make provision in their plans for a room suitable for the display of works of art." Space had become available in the City Hall following the relocation of the Technical College to its own building  at the corner of Hume and Margaret Streets in 1911. After Council decided to renovate the theatre and provide space for an art gallery and additional offices, work was undertaken in two stages. The first stage involved extending the building to provide a room on the first floor for an art gallery and office space on the ground floor for council staff. This extension was completed in 1937 at a cost of £2400 and was designed by the local firm of W Hodgen and Hodgen. It was an unobtrusive addition and involved the enclosing of the open space between the front section of the building and the theatre on the northern side. Skylights were installed to provide lighting to the art gallery and also to the main stairwell.
The second stage, in the 1940s, involved major alterations to the theatre, at a cost of £5200. The existing gallery was demolished and replaced with a smaller gallery. In the main auditorium the seats were rearranged to provide easier access and better sightlines to the stage, but reducing seating capacity. Other work involved remodelling the interior decoration, the installation of a new proscenium, improvements to the ventilation, raising of the roof above the stage and gallery and the fitting of new seats.
In 1972-73, further major alterations were undertaken to City Hall principally involving the theatre. Carried out under the direction of local architects Durack and Brammer for a cost of more than $300 000, the work included the removal of the main floor and balcony and the construction of a new floor to improve sight lines, new seating which again reduced capacity, refurbished foyer, refreshment facilities, new dressing rooms, and wider stage and improved backstage facilities. The theatre was re-opened in July 1973 by the Mayor, Alderman Nell Robinson.
When opened, the council chambers and offices were situated on the ground floor, however, as staff numbers increased, so did the demand for extra space. When the technical college moved out in 1911, council staff took over their rooms. More space was available for council staff when the former School of Arts library vacated the building in 1951. By the early 1950s, both the ground and first floors of the front section of the building, with the exception of a room on the first floor for the art gallery, were devoted to council offices. Eventually it was necessary to construct a new office complex, and in 1963 a three storeyed building, the Council Administration Building, was constructed in nearby Herries Street. In late 1963, when the Board of Education moved in, City Hall was again the venue for educational activities. The Board have subsequently relocated.
The Toowoomba Art Gallery moved out of City Hall in March 1994 into their own premises nearby in the former SWQEB building. Commencing in 1995, City Hall has undergone major refurbishment by Allom Lovell Marquis Kyle Architects. Provisions were made to enable Councillors, staff and others to move from City Hall to council offices located in the adjoining Commonwealth Building. The symbolic seat of local government has returned to its original place of residence as the Council Members once again meet in City Hall.
Source: Queensland Heritage Register.
HMAS VOYAGER D31 1942 BETANO BAY
HMAS Voyager (D31/I31) (formerly HMS Voyager (G36/G16/D31)) was a W class destroyer of the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Commissioned into the RN in 1918, the destroyer remained in RN service until 1933, when she was transferred to the RAN. Recommissioned, Voyager served in the Mediterranean and Pacific theatres of World War II until 23 September 1942, when she ran aground while trying to deliver troops to Timor. The ship was damaged by Japanese bombers while trying to refloat, then was scuttled by her crew.
Voyager was a W class destroyer constructed for the Royal Navy during World War I. The ship had a displacement of 1,100 tons at standard load, and 1,470 tons at full load. She was 312 feet 1.375 inches (95.13253 m) in length overall and 300 feet (91 m) long between perpendiculars, with a beam of 29 feet 6 inches (8.99 m), and a maximum draught of 14 feet 6.75 inches (4.4387 m). Propulsion machinery consisted of three Yarrow boilers feeding two Brown-Curtis turbines, which provided 27,000 shaft horsepower (20,000 kW) to the two propeller shafts. Maximum designed speed was 34 knots (63 km/h; 39 mph). Voyager had a range of 2,600 nautical miles (4,800 km; 3,000 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph). The ship's company consisted of 6 officers and 113 sailors.
At launch, Voyager's main armament consisted of four single QF 4-inch Mark V guns. This was supplemented by a quad-barelled QF 2 pounder naval gun, and five .303 inch machine guns of various types. The destroyer was also fitted with two 3-tube 21-inch torpedo sets, two depth charge chutes, and four depth charge throwers. Later modifications to her armament included the installation of a second 2 pounder gun and two Oerlikon 20 mm cannon, and the removal of one of the torpedo tube sets.
Voyager was laid down by Alexander Stephen and Sons at their shipyard in Glasgow, Scotland on 17 May 1917. She was launched on 8 May 1918. The destroyer was commissioned into the Royal Navy on 24 June 1918, the day of her completion. Voyager was the only ship of her class that carried a name starting with "V": the rest of the W class had names starting with "W".
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Transfer to RAN
In 1933, the British Admiralty decided to replace five S class destroyers on loan to the RAN with five more capable (but slightly older) destroyers. Voyager was one of the five ships selected, and was commissioned into the RAN at Portsmouth on 11 October 1933. The ships arrived in Australia on 21 December 1933, and Voyager undertook routine peacetime duties until she was placed in reserve on 14 April 1936. The destroyer was recommissioned on 26 April 1938, and was involved in training cruises until the start of World War II.
World War II
On 14 October 1939, Voyager left Sydney. It was originally intended for the Flotilla to be based in Singapore, but en route it was decided that the ships would be of more use in the Mediterranean. The arrival of the Australian Destroyer Flotilla was met with derision in Germany, with Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels referring to Voyager and her sister ships as "Australia's Scrap Iron Flotilla", a moniker the ships quickly adopted.
Voyager commenced operations on 1 January 1940, initially as a convoy escort operating out of Alexandria. The ship was docked at Malta for refit during April. On 13 June and again on 19 June, Voyager attacked submarines without success, but on 27 June she attacked the Italian submarine Console Generale Liuzzi off Crete with the British destroyers Dainty, Ilex, Decoy, and Defender, forcing the Italians to surrender and scuttle their vessel. Two days later, the Allied ships encountered the Italian submarine Uebi Scebeli and sank her after capturing the crew. On 9 July, Voyager was involved in the Battle of Calabria, as escort to the carrier HMS Eagle. A day later, she was assigned to escort a convoy from Malta to Alexandria.
On 23 July, there was a brief mutiny aboard the destroyer, when 12 sailors sat down outside their mess deck and refused to move until their issue was addressed. Two alternate issues have been described as the source of the protest: one was the state of the ship's armament, which was not configured for anti-aircraft warfare, the other was orders to repaint the ship in camouflage, which would have prevented any chance for shore leave. The captain came down to the sailors and resolved their problem through discussion, although he made no official record of the cause of the mutiny or its solution, and also pressed no charges against the sailors. The destroyer remained near Alexandria until September, when she returned to Malta for refit. In October, Voyager transported supplies to help establish a base on Crete following the Italian invasion of Greece. The rest of 1940 was spent escorting the Malta Convoys and providing support to ground forces involved in the Libyan campaign.
In March 1941, Voyager was involved in Operation Lustre, the Allied reinforcement of Greece. The turn of fortune against the Allies in April required the evacuation of most of these forces; Operation Demon. On 21 April, Voyager was in Navplion, and accounted for the evacuation of 301 people, including 160 nurses. Following this, the ship became involved with the Tobruk Ferry Service, and made 11 runs to the besieged city of Tobruk before engine problems forced her withdrawal in July. Voyager sailed to Sydney for refitting; the first ship of the Scrap Iron Flotilla to leave the Mediterranean. After the completion of the refit, which lasted from September 1941 to March 1942, Voyager commenced convoy escort duties in Australian waters.
Following the capture of Timor by the Japanese in February 1942, and despite initial appearances that all Allied soldiers were captured or killed, it became evident that the 2/2nd Independent Company, supported by other surviving Australian and Dutch troops, were mounting a guerrilla campaign against the Japanese. Throughout late 1942, a haphazard supply service began, and Voyager became involved when a sizable troop landing (400 commandos from 2/4th Independent Company) and evacuation (the 2/2nd, plus any Portuguese women and children) was planned for September 1942: the need for a large capacity, speed, and surprise requiring the use of a destroyer.
The 2/4th boarded at Darwin on 22 September 1942, along with supplies and barges to convey them ashore. The planned landing place was Betano Bay, where Voyager anchored at 18:30 on 23 September. The destroyer's position was not the best, and as the soldiers began to disembark over the port side into the barges, Voyager's commanding officer decided to reorient the ship. As the anchor was raised, a surge in the current pushed the ship towards the shore. Unable to use the port propeller shaft to push the destroyer away from the shore as the landing craft would have been swamped and dragged into the propeller, the commander attempted to swing Voyager around with the starboard shaft. Voyager was unable to complete the turn, with the ship running aground at the stern. Attempts to lighten the ship and float her free failed, and by the next morning's high tide, the stern and propeller shafts were embedded in the sand.
At 13:30 on 24 September, the beached ship was spotted by two Japanese aircraft; the bomber shot down, but the escorting fighter escaped to report. At 16:00 a flight of Japanese bombers attacked the ship and the beach. The destroyer was damaged beyond recovery, and while none of the ship's company were injured, their alcohol supply-which had been brought ashore during the refloating attempts-was destroyed by a bomb. After the air attack, the Voyager personnel signalled Darwin to explain the ship's loss and request evacuation; they were retrieved by the corvettes Kalgoorlie and Warrnambool at 20:00 on 25 September.
The destroyer's wartime service is recognised with seven battle honours: "Darwin 1942", "Calabria 1940", "Libya 1940–41", "Greece 1941", "Crete 1941", "Mediterranean 1941", and "Pacific 1942".
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k Cassells, The Destroyers, p. 166
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Cassells, The Destroyers, p. 167
Jump up ^ Cassells, The Destroyers, p. 154
^ Jump up to: a b HMAS Voyager (I), Sea Power Centre
Jump up ^ THE SCRAP-IRON FLOTILLA Chapter 1. Scrap Iron or "Scrap" Iron?
Jump up ^ Goldrick, in The Royal Australian Navy, p. 112
^ Jump up to: a b Frame & Baker, Mutiny, p. 152
Jump up ^ Frame & Baker, Mutiny!, pp. 151-2
^ Jump up to: a b c Cassells, The Destroyers, p. 168
Jump up ^ Cassells, The Destroyers, pp. 168–9
^ Jump up to: a b c d Cassells, The Destroyers, p. 169
Jump up ^ Goldrick, in The Royal Australian Navy, p. 119
^ Jump up to: a b c d Goldrick, in The Royal Australian Navy, p. 130
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bauer, Heroic stand of HMAS Armidale,[page needed]
Jump up ^ "Navy Marks 109th Birthday With Historic Changes To Battle Honours". Royal Australian Navy. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
Jump up ^ "Royal Australian Navy Ship/Unit Battle Honours". Royal Australian Navy. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
Cassells, Vic (2000). The Destroyers: their battles and their badges. East Roseville, NSW: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7318-0893-2. OCLC 46829686.
Frame, Tom; Baker, Kevin (2000). Mutiny! Naval Insurrections in Australia and New Zealand. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-351-8. OCLC 46882022.
Gill, George Hermon (1957). Royal Australian Navy, 1939–1942 (PDF). Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Series 2, Volume I. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 848228. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
Goldrick, James (2001). "World War II: The war against Germany and Italy (pp. 103–126), World War II: The war against Japan (pp. 127–154)". In Stevens, David. The Royal Australian Navy. The Australian Centenary History of Defence (vol III). South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press. pp. 103–126. ISBN 0-19-555542-2. OCLC 50418095.
Feuer, A.B. (February 1999). "Heroic stand of HMAS Armidale". World War II 13 (6): 50–57. ISSN 08984204.
"HMAS Voyager (I)". Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
Preston, Antony (1971). 'V & W' Class Destroyers 1917–1945. London: Macdonald. OCLC 464542895.
Raven, Alan; Roberts, John (1979). 'V' and 'W' Class Destroyers. Man o' War 2. London: Arms & Armour. ISBN 0-85368-233-X.
Coordinates: 9°15′S 125°45′E
[hide] v t e
V and W-class destroyers
Valentine Valhalla Valkyrie Valorous Vampire
Vancouver Vanessa Vanity Vanoc Vanquisher Vectis Vega Vehement Velox Vendetta Venetia Venturous Verdun Versatile Verulam Vesper Vidette Vimiera Violent Vittoria Vivacious Vivien Vortigern
Voyager Wakeful Walker Walpole Walrus Warwick Watchman Waterhen Wessex Westcott Westminster Whirlwind Whitley (ex-Whitby) Winchelsea Winchester Windsor Wolfhound Wrestler Wryneck
V and W class
Viceroy Viscount Wolsey Woolston
modified W class
modified W class
Vansittart Venomous (ex-Venom) Verity Volunteer Wanderer Whitehall Wren Veteran Whitshed Wild Swan Witherington Wivern Wolverine Worcester
Vantage Vashon Vengeful Vigo Vigorous Virulent Volage Volcano Votary Wager Wake Waldegrave Walton Warren Watson Wave Weazel Welcome Wellesley Werewolf Westphal Westward Ho Wheeler Whelp Willoughby Whip Whippet Whitaker White Bear Whitehead Winter Wrangler Wye Yeoman Zealous Zebra Zodiac
Image from page 278 of "Catalogue of portraits, miniatures &c. : in the possession of Cecil George Savile, 4th Earl of Liverpool, Lord Steward, &c" (1905)
Title: Catalogue of portraits, miniatures &c. : in the possession of Cecil George Savile, 4th Earl of Liverpool, Lord Steward, &c
Year: 1905 (1900s)
Authors: Savile, Cecil George
Subjects: Kirkham Abbey (Yorkshire, England)
Publisher: [Liverpool : s.n.]
Contributing Library: Getty Research Institute
Digitizing Sponsor: Getty Research Institute
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Text Appearing Before Image:
Wall. 727. Cecil G. S. Foljambe. Engraving. 728. Stone Pine, at Nice. By Lady M. Dnndas. Second Alcove Bedroom. 729. Francis Thornhagh Foljambe, 2nd son of John Savile Foljambe, Esq., of Aldwark, as a boy, with a dog, in a lane at Hutton,near Marston, co. York. Water-colour drawing, 8 x 6 in. 730. Cecil George Savile Foljambe, Esq., M.P. Engraving. Over the door. 731. Kirkham Abbey Ruins. The East Window. Drawing II x 9 in. By Elizabeth Willoughby, 1791. 732. Conisborough Castle. Drawing. By Mary Arabella, 1st wife of F. F. Foljambe, Esq. 733. H.M. Queen Victoria. Silhouette, 11 x 8J in., done at Brighton, 1841. 734. Conisborough Castle. Drawing. By Mary Arabella, 1st wife of F. F. Foljambe, Esq. 735. Cecil, 4th Lord Hawkesbury. Engraving. 736. Aldwark. Drawing. By Mary A rabella Thornhagh. 737. Mrs. Foljambe: Elizabeth, widow of John Savile Foljambe, of Aldwark. io£x6fin. Silhouette, done at Brighton, 1841. 738. Deer in Shireoaks Park. Drawing. By Mary Arabella Thornhagh. Plate LX
Text Appearing After Image:
No. 846 (2).—Anne, Lady Cornewall (page 137) PORTRAITS, &C, AT 2, CARLTON HOUSE TERRACE. 133 739 to 744* Six small Landscapes in oils, viz., three of Fellfoot,two of the Solway Firth, and one of Filey Bridge.By Mrs. Dixon. 745. Durham Ox, bred by the 3rd Earl of Liverpool at Pitchford, Salop. 746. Farnley Hall, Yorkshire, in 1581. Engraving. 747. Silver Fir, at Osberton. Water-colour drawing. By Sir Charles Anderson^ 9th Bart. Also a Scriptural Drawing. First South Room—Day Nursery. 748. Cologne Cathedral. Engraving. 749. Coronation Procession of H.M. Queen Victoria at West- minster. 750. The Choir. Engraving. 751. Coronation of H.M. Queen Victoria in Westminster Abbey. 752. A Hunting Scene. 753. A Cottage, with two figures. 754. A Hunting Scene. 755. Oak Tree, with hunting scene in Sherwood Forest. 756. H.M.S. Curacoa in Farm Cove, Sydney. Water-colour drawing. 757. View from the Saloon, Wentworth Woodhouse. Drawn and engraved by Selina, Viscountess Milton. 758. St. Johns Chu
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Barrie Antiques Centre, Barrie Ontario
R. & O. N. Co. Toronto Montreal Line -
Rapids King by artist Henry Hinder (1870-1952).
It was one of the ferry boats on the line from Toronto to Montreal before the St. Lawrence Seaway was completed.
Hinder, Henry Francis (Frank) (1906–1992)
by Eileen Chanin
This article was published online in 2016
This is a shared entry with Margel Ina Hinder
Henry Francis Critchley Hinder (1906–1992), artist and teacher, and Margel Ina Hinder (1906–1995), sculptor and teacher, were husband and wife. Frank was born on 26 June 1906 at Summer Hill, Sydney, fourth child of New South Wales-born parents Henry Vincent Critchley Hinder, medical practitioner, and his wife Enid Marguerite, née Pockley. He was educated at Newington College and Sydney Church of England Grammar School (Shore), and took art classes from Dattilo Rubbo, first at Newington and then at the school of the Royal Art Society of New South Wales in 1924. Rubbo’s injunction to draw rather than copy left a lasting impression. In 1925 he toured Europe with the Young Australia League. Returning to Sydney, having decided to become a commercial artist, he enrolled at East Sydney Technical College, where he worked under Rayner Hoff.
In September 1927 Hinder went to the United States of America seeking to improve his graphic skills. Over the next seven years he supported himself designing for advertising agencies and book and magazine publishers while studying and later teaching. He attended the School of the Art Institute of Chicago before moving to New York, where teachers at the New York School of Fine and Applied Art invigorated him. Howard Giles and Emil Bisttram advocated Jay Hambidge’s system of pictorial composition, dynamic symmetry, from which Hinder developed a theoretical approach that focused on geometric ways of organising and relating the parts of a work.
Attending Bisttram’s summer school at Moriah, Lake Champlain, New York State, Hinder met Margel Ina Harris, a fellow student. She was born on 4 January 1906 at Brooklyn, New York, second child of Wilson Parke Harris, journalist, and his wife Helen, née Haist. The family had moved to Buffalo in 1909. Margel’s talent for sculpture was recognised early. As a small child she modelled rather than drew, and at the age of five she attended children’s classes at the Albright Art Gallery. She received a progressive education at Buffalo Seminary.
Studies followed in 1925 at the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, under Florence Bach. Moving to Boston in 1926, she spent three years at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, learning traditional modelling in clay and plaster from Charles Grafly and Frederick Allen. She preferred carving. On 17 May 1930 at the registry office, Wellesly, Massachusetts, she married Frank. From 1931 to 1934 Frank taught design and drawing at the Child-Walker School of Fine Art, Boston, where Margel attended his classes and those of Giles. In 1933 he held his first solo show, at Boston.
With the Depression biting, the Hinders moved to Sydney in August 1934, where they promoted modern art. For the next five years, they scratched a living as commercial artists. Margel experimented with carving Australian timbers. Interested in the contemporary movement and influenced by Eleonore Lange, they befriended like-minded artists, including Rah Fizelle, Grace Crowley, Ralph Balson, and Gerald Lewers and his wife Margo. In May 1937 Frank held his first exhibition in Australia, at the Grosvenor Galleries.
Margel was naturalised in 1939. That year, with Lange, Frank organised Exhibition 1 at David Jones Art Gallery. Margel exhibited her carving and Frank exhibited the painting Dog Gymkhana (1939), perhaps his best-known work. His attempts to draw unity from complex modern-life subjects involving movement were received negatively by critics such as Howard Ashton. During 1939 Frank also helped Peter Bellew to establish the Sydney branch of the Contemporary Art Society (president, 1956).
Both Hinders contributed to Australia’s effort in World War II. As a lieutenant (1941–43) in the Citizen Military Forces and a member (1942–44) of William Dakin’s directorate of camouflage in the Department of Home Security, Frank researched and developed methods of disguising and concealing equipment and structures. Margel made wooden models for use in this work. Frank received a war invention award for his ‘Hinder Spider,’ an improved frame for draping a camouflage net over a gun.
With the war over, Frank returned to commercial art, and began teaching at the National Art School in 1946; he would continue until 1958. Margel lectured at the Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW) (1948–50), taught sculpture at the National Art School (1949–50), and ran sculpture classes in her home studio (1950–51). In 1949 the couple had moved into a purpose-designed Sydney Ancher house at Gordon. That year the AGNSW bought Margel’s Garden Sculpture (1945); it was her first work acquired by an Australian public gallery. It prefigured her increasing preoccupation with movement, and her ambition to progress from the classicism of a solid shape with a central axis. The spontaneity she sought was difficult to achieve in wood or stone, and in 1953 she began working with metal. Taking her inspiration mostly from nature, such as birds in flight, she made delicate constructions of thin wire and transparent perspex. Asymmetry, and the necessity to move around sculpture to comprehend its form, became central to her approach, and led to the revolving constructions she began in 1954.
The Hinders’ work was increasingly recognised during the 1950s. Frank controversially won the second Blake prize for religious art in 1952, although traditionalists derided his painting Flight into Egypt. He was awarded Queen Elizabeth II’s coronation medal in 1953, and won the Perth prize for contemporary art (watercolour) in 1954. His paintings were included in the exhibition Twelve Australian Artists, presented in Britain by the Arts Council of Great Britain in 1953 and 1954. In 1953 Margel was placed among the first twelve sculptors in more than three thousand entries for the international Unknown Political Prisoner competition. She was awarded the Madach (1955) and Clint (1957) prizes by the Contemporary Art Society, Sydney.
Frank’s interest in theatrical design blossomed when, between 1957 and 1965, he created seventeen sets and eleven costume designs, with assistance from Margel. His design for the Australian Elizabethan Theatre Trust’s The Shifting Heart (1957) won the Irene Mitchell award for set design. In 1963 he helped found the Australian Stage Designers’ Association (president, 1964). His work was exhibited at the 1962 Festival of Performing Arts: Theatre Design, Athens, and the 1967 Prague Quadrennial of Theatre Design and Architecture. He was appointed to the board of studies, National Institute of Dramatic Art in 1958.
Aware of what he had gained from his teachers in New York, Frank became an advocate for art education. From 1958 to 1964 he was head of the art department at Sydney Teachers’ College, and, in 1968, he resumed teaching at the National Art School. Artistic recognition also continued. His work was exhibited at the 1957 Synthesis of Plastic Arts, Association Internationale des Arts Plastiques, Paris; in Fifteen Contemporary Australian Painters, New Vision Centre Gallery, London, 1960; and at the VI Bienal de Sao Paolo, Brazil, 1961. In 1962 the War Memorial Gallery of Fine Arts, University of Sydney, staged a survey of forty of his works from 1925 to 1961.
Meanwhile, Margel had become one of the few women artists in Australia involved in large public commissions. She won the Blake prize for religious sculpture in 1961. The same year, her work was included in the Second International Sculpture Exhibition, Paris. She insisted her large public sculptures should be related to their setting, and reached a wide audience through many commissions that became part of Australia’s environment. Her desire to express movement would ultimately lead her to work with water. After winning a design competition, she was assisted by Frank to construct the fountain for Civic Park, Newcastle; it was completed in 1966. This water sculpture, later renamed Captain James Cook Memorial Fountain, is acknowledged as her masterpiece.
While Margel articulated movement with sculptural space in the round, Frank searched for objective order using light. Lengthy experimentation with colour organisation in his own painting, beside stage lighting, design, and rear projection, led him in 1967 to make luminal kinetics, sculpture in which coloured lights and designs interact upon each other.
In 1973 the Newcastle City Art Gallery held a retrospective exhibition of the Hinders’ work, their first joint exhibition and the first time that a body of Margel’s work was exhibited. For their services to art, both were appointed AM in 1979. Another joint retrospective exhibition was held at the AGNSW in 1980. Economy of form, spatial mastery, and imaginative innovation were hallmarks of their work. Their dedication to the visual arts was showcased in 1983 in the exhibition Frank and Margel Hinder—A Selected Survey, at the Bathurst Regional Art Gallery.
Opposite personalities, the Hinders complemented each other. They were frequently inspired by similar thoughts and attitudes, yet displayed great individuality in their work. As a friend observed, ‘Frank is the cliff, and Margel is the ocean’ (McGrath 1980, 12). Frank was tall, good-humoured, and self-deprecating, with a honeyed voice and avuncular manner. Margel was short, direct, and ardent, a perfectionist with a keen intellect who could be outspoken but also warm. His sharp sense of the comic and the absurd was a foil to her intensity and passion. He died on 31 December 1992 at Killara, and was cremated. Survived by their daughter, she died on 29 May 1995 at Roseville; she was cremated. For more than fifty years, they had formed an artistic partnership, influencing each other in the exchange of ideas and exploration of media, and in focus and style.
Research edited by Karen Fox
Art Gallery of New South Wales Research Library and Archive. MS1995.1, Papers of Frank Hinder
Art Gallery of New South Wales Research Library and Archive. MS1995.2, Papers of Margel Hinder
Cornford, Ian. The Sculpture of Margel Hinder. Willoughby, NSW: Phillip Mathews Book Publishers, 2013
Free, Renee. Frank and Margel Hinder 1930-1980. Sydney: Trustees of the Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1980
Free, Renee and John Henshaw, with Frank Hinder. The Art of Frank Hinder. Willoughby, NSW: Phillip Mathews Book Publishers, 2011
McGrath, Sandra. ‘Marriage of Minds—50 Years On.’ Australian, 21-22 June 1980, 12
National Archives of Australia. B884, N279580
State Library of New South Wales. Frank Hinder Aggregated Collection of Papers, Pictorial Material and Cassette Tapes, ca.1745-1992
State Library of New South Wales. MLMSS 6088, Margel Hinder—Papers, ca.1900-1995
State Transit Authority Mercedes O500LE (Compressed Natural Gas - CNG) 1985-ST (fleet No 1985) on Victoria Road at Robert Street, White Bay, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Photo taken on 17 December, 2009.
State Transit Authority Mercedes O500LE (Compressed Natural Gas - CNG) 1985-ST (fleet No 1985) on Victoria Road at Robert Street, White Bay, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
This bus is on Route 506 from the East Ryde and Macquarie Park area via Hunters Hill to the City at Wynyard.
The Route 506 is quite a scenic one and travels over a narrow road through bushland before traversing four major bridges. The first is the Tarban Creek Bridge, the next is the Gladesviile Bridge, the third is the Iron Cove Bridge that is now being duplicated, while the fourth is the very impressive Anzac Bridge.
The bus is one of nine or ten in the fleet that have been decorated for Christmas. The interested staff at most of the State Transit Depots will select a bus and transform it into a magical experience and it will be operated by those statf to keep it spick and span for the weeks leading up to Christmas.
The buses are entered into a competition and the one that is deemed the best wins a prize which is donated to a charity.
The one that won this year's competition was a Scania L113T of 14.5 metres in length No 3423. This bus is based at Willoughby Depot and serves north side routes that operate over the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
I therefore wish all of you the very best wishes for Christmas and a Happy New Year in 2010..
Chatswood Oval & skyline
Chatswood has been in constant state of demolition and re-building for 50 plus years. The Trumper pavillion (photographed on the right) was completed in 1924.
The tree in the middle is a Brush Box (Lophostemon confertus).
I wrote the Wikipedia article on Chatswood Oval. So many great cricketers played here; such as "Our Governor General", Chatswood resident Charlie Macartney, Chatswood resident and cricket immortal, Victor Trumper, Don Bradman, who scored 201 at Chatswood Oval, Bert Oldfield, wicketkeeper for Gordon District Cricket Club, Neil Harvey & Adam Gilchrist.
The two cricketers who are most revered here are the locals: Charlie Macartney & Victor Trumper.
Chatswood Oval is located south of the Chatswood railway station in northern Sydney, Australia. It has four small pavilions and seating surrounding the oval. It is one of the Lower North Shore's largest sportsgrounds, and the home ground of the Gordon Rugby Football Club and Gordon District Cricket Club. One of the largest crowds was 8,127 when Gordon Rugby played Randwick in 1976. Gordon Rugby have been playing at Chatswood Oval since 1936. The approximate dimensions of the oval are 145 metres by 112 metres.
In 1898, the local council approved for five acres of land south of the railway station to be made a public park. This area was formerly a Chinese market garden with a large well in the centre. The oval was opened in 1900. In the season 1906-07 The Gordon District Cricket Club took up residence, previously known as the Willoughby District Cricket Club.
The heyday of cricket for Chatswood Oval was up to the 1930s. Of note was Don Bradman's 201 runs scored at Chatswood Oval in April 1932, including 28 fours and two sixes in 171 minutes. Also, the local resident Charlie Macartney who hit a cricket ball over the train line, disrupting a game of bowls. Macartney was affectionately known by Chatswood residents as "our Governor General". His friend, another local resident Victor Trumper played here, and was a crowd favourite. The Trumper Pavilion was named in his honour. Bert Oldfield played regularly at Chatswood Oval. Macartney, Trumper and Oldfield were all Wisden Cricketers of the Year.
A few first grade Rugby League games were played at Chatswood Oval in the 1930s. Featuring North Sydney playing Souths, Easts and Balmain.
In the early 1900s trees were planted around the oval. Many survive to the 21st century, including fine examples of Hoop Pine and Bunya Pine.
It soon became clear that the original 1903 grandstand was too small. And in 1913 plans were made to replace it. This occurred in 1924 with the construction of the Trumper Pavilion, which seats 250 spectators. The Cedric Pike stand (1963), holding 315 spectators was named after a local Rugby figure, who died as a prisoner of war in Malaya in 1943. The Paul Harrison Pavilion (1980) is named after a local supporter of sport. And the Jack Donnelly Stand (1980) is named after a former mayor and athlete.
Sydney Buses 2114
Sydney Buses Willoughby Volvo B12BLE Euro 5/Custom Coaches CB60 Evo II 2114 at Milsons Point departing on 4:25pm 286 to Denistone East, 12/05/16 @ 4:22pm
001# Suspension Bridge
a) In the mid-1880s there was considerable agitation among residents of the North Sydney area for transport to the city. In May 1886 in response to this demand, a goverment-owner cable tramway began operating between Ridge Street and Milsons Point where passangers could catch the ferry to the business district of Sydney. Landowners further north talked of an extension to the tramway. Two of them, Andrew Armstrong, land and parlamentary agent, and landowner James Alexander Brown conceived a bold scheme to extend the line as far north as the parish of Gordon ( now East Roselle ), crossing the head of Long Bay gully by means of a new high-level bridge.
As the line required parlamentary approval, the two men applied to the NSW Parliament in 1886 for leave to introduce a Bill to construct and maintain such a tramway. The line would commence at the existing Ridge Street Terminus of the St. Leanards Cable Tramway them travel along Miller Street in a northerly direction to Long Bay, them through North Willoughby to Mowbray Road, McClelland Street, Victoria Avenue and Albert Street ( now Boundary Street ).
1880/90 Construction underway. The Bridge,s designers, W H Warren and J E F Coyle, chose an ornate suspention structure which was the largest of its type in Australia at the time and the fourth largest in the world.
"Sir Byron Edmund Walker"
N 4 WALKER, Sir BYRON EDMUND, banker, philanthropist, and patron of the arts; b. 14 Oct. 1848 near Caledonia, Upper Canada, son of Alfred Edmund Walker and Fanny Murton; m. 5 Nov. 1874 Mary Alexander (d. 1923) in Hamilton, Ont., and they had four sons and three daughters; d. 27 March 1924 in Toronto.
Byron Edmund Walker, born in “the back woods” a half-day’s journey south of Hamilton, became a Canadian Medici and one of the most eminent personalities of his generation. He was the eldest son of an unremarkable family, the second of seven children. He claimed to owe his father “whatever qualities I may possess.” Alfred Walker was the son of middle-class English immigrants who had settled in the Grand River region in the 1830s. Indifferent health made him unsuited to rural life, and in 1852 he, his wife, and their children moved to Hamilton. A clerk, he never distinguished himself in business but he became a noted amateur geologist and palaeontologist. To his son he transmitted his passion for natural history. “I was taught to appreciate that the truth regarding nature was the divine thing,” Walker recalled in 1918, “and that we must learn it so far as it is possible.” There was nothing unusual about their interest in fossils; collecting had become a popular pastime in Victorian Canada. What set young Byron apart was his desire to understand how his discoveries explained the world around him. A lack of formal education never impeded him. He was a dedicated autodidact and his inherited spirit of inquiry led him to master a broad array of subjects. Combined with his organizational acumen, ability to influence, and access to powerful individuals, Walker’s talents served to develop more aspects of Canadian life than those of any of his contemporaries.
It is principally his contribution to commercial life, however, that remains known. One biographer claims that Walker derived his business skills from his mother. Fanny Murton’s parents were also English immigrants of the 1830s, her father, according to Walker’s sister Edith, “a gentleman farmer” who had studied law and her mother an educator who “spoke French and Italian fluently, and was the only woman west of Toronto who could play the harpsichord.” Mrs Murton ran a private school in Hamilton, and it was there that four-year-old Byron began his schooling. He continued at the Central School, finished after grade 6, and at age 12 prepared to enter teachers’ college in Toronto. But doctor’s orders prevented him: “I had better run about, and get a little flesh on my bones” was how Walker remembered the directive. Instead, the boy went to work in August 1861 at the exchange office of his uncle John Walter Murton. The previous winter and spring 11 American states had seceded from the Union. Bonds and paper money issued by the United States government as war measures complicated the already complex North American currency situation. Walker’s duties included the authentication of coins and notes. Pieces of eight, greenbacks, English silver, and the notes of dozens of failed banks: he handled them all. In 1868 he moved to Montreal to run an exchange firm there, but feeble health (which would plague him for another 20 years) forced him back to Hamilton a few months later to work in the local branch of the recently formed Canadian Bank of Commerce.
The bank had been established in 1867 by Irish-born merchant William McMaster* and a consortium of Toronto businessmen in reaction to the growing dominance of the Bank of Montreal [see Edwin Henry King*]. Farmers and businessmen in the province needed greater access to credit, and branches of the Commerce were opened in a number of towns. Walker became a discount clerk in Hamilton. An evaluation from 1869 characterizes him as “an invaluable officer, competent in every respect.” He rose through the ranks swiftly, becoming chief accountant in Toronto in 1872 and junior agent in New York in 1873. Business failures were commonplace during the depressed 1870s, and Walker appears to have been especially skilled at helping his bank minimize its losses. In 1875 he was sent to Windsor, Ont., to disentangle the Commerce from several sour lumber investments. Later he served as manager at the London (1878–79) and Hamilton (1880–81) branches. As inspector at the head office in Toronto from 1879 to 1880, he introduced the use of telegraphy in multiple-branch banking and implemented printed regulations and operating procedures. Subsequently he reorganized the bank into discrete departments, a measure which anticipated modern business practice.
Also during his Toronto stint Walker produced for McMaster (now a senator) and federal opposition leader Edward Blake* a report on how Canadian banking differed from the American system. The government was in the process of reforming the Bank Act of 1871 after a spate of financial woes. A number of banks had failed during the 1870s and critics began to advocate the United States model of more numerous but smaller local banks (though these were frequently undercapitalized) and centralized control of note circulation. Drawing on his New York experience and his training in an exchange office, Walker compared the two systems and favoured Canadian practices. “We have a system which, while it can be improved in some of its details, is fundamentally sound: our bank issues, owing to the strength and peculiar organization of our Banks, pass at par everywhere in the Dominion . . . and the notes are, from the small number of Banks, well known to the most ignorant of tradesmen, mechanics or agriculturists. No practical fault can be found with our Bank-issue as a circulating medium; . . . if it lacks anything in uniform it possesses a much more important virtue in being elastic.” Owing to the structure of Canadian finance, banks were less likely to fail and both borrowers and depositors could be served more securely and conveniently. Partly on the strength of Walker’s report, finance minister Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley* proposed a new general bank act in 1880 which effected only minor changes. The system that had evolved since before confederation remained intact, although decennial revisions of the act meant that the chartered banks regularly had, in Walker’s words, “to fight for our existence.”
His peregrinations continued. In 1881 he began a five-year sojourn in New York, conducting the Commerce’s growing role as a foreign-exchange bank. Walker returned to Toronto in autumn 1886 to become general manager. The previous two years are described in the firm’s official history as “possibly the most difficult” for the bank. It had suffered through customers’ failures in land and timber operations. General manager Walter Nichol Anderson had resigned and Walker was appointed to turn around the company’s fortunes. His first task was a thorough re-evaluation of the bank’s assets and operations. Several changes were necessary, most significantly an adjustment to its deposits-to-capital ratio. The Commerce’s dividends improved markedly as a result, and within ten years Walker had made it the most profitable financial institution in Ontario. Much of this success was due to the program of weekly reports that he implemented in 1889. All branches were required to file a “gossip sheet,” which Walker and his staff used in devising the bank’s plans and objectives. A distillation of these reports was delivered each year in Walker’s address to shareholders. For 35 years financiers and economists in Canada and the United States would benefit from his annual review of the nation’s financial and industrial “pulse.” It was also during his tenure as general manager that the Commerce began to expand its operations westward with branches in Winnipeg, Vancouver, and Dawson, Y.T., for example, and to build up a presence in the Maritimes.
In January 1907 Walker became president of the bank, succeeding Senator George Albertus Cox*. He would hold the office until his death in 1924, although after 1915 he was no longer chief executive officer. His years were ones of tremendous growth: the company’s total assets were $22,000,000 in 1886; by 1915, when John Aird* took the helm, they had increased more than tenfold, as had the number of branches. Walker transformed the bank into a modern corporation with such innovations as a realty company to manage the Commerce’s buildings, a pension fund for retired employees, and a bank archives. After 1915 he continued “to dispense optimism and sober reproof,” guiding junior officers with wisdom earned in nearly a half-century in the bank’s service.
Walker’s high position brought him directly into the exclusive circles of Canadian capitalism. These were interconnected groups of entrepreneurs, bankers, and lawyers who to a great extent had succeeded in concentrating control of the nation’s financial resources. One such group involved railway promoters William Mackenzie and Donald Mann*. Their dream of a northern route to the burgeoning west took them several times to the brink of bankruptcy. Walker was their banker, and he continued to extend credit to them despite worries, widespread among politicians and journalists, that the Canadian Northern’s recklessness would bring it and the Commerce crashing down. His fidelity to the Northern rested on three things: Mackenzie’s friendship, optimism about the potential for profit in the west, and belief in the rightful role of private enterprise to develop Canada clear of government interference. Mackenzie and Mann typified the businessman as nation-builder, and Walker, sharing their vision, gave the bank’s unswerving support, as he did with a variety of other development and utilities schemes at home and abroad.
His reputation in business owed as much to his activities apart from the Commerce. He led the bankers’ section of the Toronto Board of Trade and was instrumental in founding the Canadian Bankers’ Association in 1891 (he would be elected president in 1893 and 1894). His involvement was motivated by his belief that public discourse was too much influenced by journalists who had no expertise in economics. When bank charters were up for renewal in 1890, the newspapers had pressured finance minister George Eulas Foster* to overhaul the current legislation by introducing American-style fixed reserves, a measure favoured as well by Foster’s deputy minister, John Mortimer Courtney*, and by imposing a higher degree of state control over inflation. But Canada’s laissez-faire bankers were hesitant to relinquish any of their privileges. Acting in concert under the leadership of Walker, Edward Seaborne Clouston* (Bank of Montreal), Thomas Fyshe* (Bank of Nova Scotia), and George Hague (Merchants’ Bank of Canada), they were able to preserve their relative independence.
Walker tended to couch his rhetoric in terms of service and development. The branch system, with its handful of chartered banks present from coast to coast, promoted unity and nation-building. Rather than acting out “a compromise between the necessities of the government, arising from war or extravagance, and the commercial requirements of the nation,” Canadian bank policy was the result of a “happier condition where the law-maker and the banker have been mainly concerned to give the people the best instrument in aid of commerce that they could devise.” The Canadian model had served the country relatively well, and was constantly perfecting itself. For as long as Walker remained involved, the banks maintained most of their rights. Where reforms were introduced – for example, the creation of a bank circulation redemption fund, whereby each bank was obliged to deposit with the government an amount equal to five per cent of its average circulation – they were often prompted by his proposals. Only under the strain of war did the state stray from his advice. The Finance Act of 1914 moved Canadian banking away from its laissez-faire origins, a measure which in some ways prefigured the creation of a central bank in 1935.
Walker also enjoyed an international reputation as a banker. “No name is better known among the banking fraternity than yours,” an American colleague told him. In 1913 he was asked to testify before the United States House of Representatives committee on banking, and he frequently addressed foreign audiences on such matters as “Why Canada is against bimetallism,” “Banking as a public service,” “The relations of banking to business enterprise,” and “Abnormal features of American banking.” His knowledge of bank history and his economic theories were promulgated in numerous pamphlets and books, among them A history of banking in Canada. Known as “the pope of the banking system,” Walker often pontificated in defence of financial institutions. “It is the fashion of certain demagogues to speak of bankers and of insurance men as non-producers,” he told the International Convention of Life Underwriters in 1918, “but not even the powers of steam and electricity have done more for industry than credit and insurance.” Credit did more than pave the way to material prosperity; it was an engine of social uplift.
For his many services to Canada, in 1908 Walker had been made a cvo. Two years later King George V knighted him. Although he had been quiet about his politics – “the interests of the Bank are so extensive that I have found it expedient to keep out of politics,” he explained – he had long been a Liberal. In 1911, however, his political aloofness came to an end. The issue was reciprocity, free trade in natural products between Canada and the United States. Canada had prospered under the National Policy of high tariffs on manufactured goods, a creature of Sir John A. Macdonald*’s Conservative government. The Liberal opposition favoured unrestricted reciprocity, but by the time its leader, Wilfrid Laurier*, came to power in 1896, the political and economic usefulness of protectionism had been realized. The Liberal government nevertheless chose to gamble on a policy of free trade in agricultural products, and in January 1911 announced the terms of the Taft-Fielding agreement [see William Stevens Fielding]. Within a month Canadian businessmen had emerged squarely against the deal: free trade in some products now, they argued, meant unrestricted reciprocity later, a break with the British empire, and eventually annexation.
It was in fact the business community, not the ineffectual Conservative opposition, that led the campaign against Laurier. The most highly organized and nationally prominent anti-reciprocity force was the “Toronto Eighteen,” headed by Walker. Described by one historian as “an inter-locking structure of banking, transportation, insurance, manufacturing and other related interests,” they unleashed, in the words of another, “a firestorm of anti-American sentiment.” They helped create such propaganda bodies as the Canadian National League and the Canadian Home Market Association, published anti-free trade tracts, cartoons, and advertisements, and blanketed the nation with pamphlets publicizing their position. In the general election of September 1911 voters defeated the Liberal government. Walker had been invited by Robert Laird Borden*, leader of the opposition, to run as a Conservative but had declined. However, he advised the new prime minister on a variety of issues during his term. Laurier likely never forgave him. A Toronto newspaper was surprised to find the two seated side by side at a University of Toronto gathering in 1914. The banker quipped, “Well, if Sir Wilfrid does not object I see no reason why I should.”
Walker’s opposition to reciprocity stemmed from his views on how best to develop Canada’s economic position. This small nation could either continue to prosper as a dominion within the empire, he believed, or disappear into the United States. He never liked the way the American economy had taken shape. For example, he denounced the overthrow of founding father Alexander Hamilton’s financial system, which he considered sane and intelligent. He also disparaged America’s “gross materialism” and tendency to waste. His anti-free trade protest was, therefore, based on “much more than a trade question. . . . The question is between British connection and what has been well called Continentalism.” The extent of his anti-Americanism, however, is open to argument. He would tell Canadian audiences they should “save and increase such good qualities as tend to differentiate us from the United States,” among them a disdain for “extreme democracy” and suspicion of industrial oligarchy and “machine politics.” On the other hand, he told Americans that, while he disliked some features of their country, he greatly admired others. He simply valued Canada’s ties to Britain much more and did not think they could be maintained if America’s influence grew too strong. Walker was an imperialist, with James Mavor, Edward Joseph Kylie* and George MacKinnon Wrong* a member of the Round Table movement, and a believer in the empire as “the greatest political and social enterprise in the history of the world.”
It has been suggested that Walker’s fight against reciprocity was in part motivated by anti-immigrant sentiment. He was not a hateful man, no more so than any of his contemporaries. He was “proud to feel that Canada was a place where every color and every kind could have an opportunity,” but objected to immigrants’ seeming hesitance to integrate with British Canadian society. He blamed agricultural settlers in the west for Laurier’s departure from protectionism. Immigration itself was not a menace; in fact, Walker understood it to be the catalyst to the economic boom of the century’s first decade. Yet he was concerned that Canada had taken in more foreigners than it could absorb. Without proper measures, they could threaten law and order, and indeed seemed to be weakening the imperial tie.
Walker frequently spoke of particular “Canadian ambitions” and felt that these should be inculcated in newcomers. The alternative was to become too much like the materialistic, polyglot, and potentially unstable United States. “No great nation,” he remarked in 1907, “was ever built up solely on the basis of material prosperity,” and he insisted that Canadians strive for something greater. This ideal could be attained by cultivating proper tastes and sensibilities and would be aided principally by two things: higher education and the fine arts. To these ends, Walker promoted a wide array of institutions, first among them schools “where the duties of citizenship and the ethical aspects of life are taught in the fullest manner.” He was a Toronto Board of Education trustee in 1904, and in 1911 founded the Appleby School in Oakville, Ont.
The University of Toronto benefited most from his efforts. After his return from New York to stay, his family had acquired Long Garth, a large home literally in the university’s backyard. In 1890 fire destroyed a good part of the main college building. In addition to witnessing the blaze, Walker was asked by President Sir Daniel Wilson* to head the campaign to raise funds for restoration. His bank donated $1,000 and many local and national businesses followed the example. Subsequently Chancellor Edward Blake asked him to supervise the university’s financial situation, and later he worked with Joseph Wesley Flavelle* on the royal commission on the University of Toronto (1905–6), which suggested major changes to funding and management. Shortly before it federated with the university in 1904, Trinity College had made him an honorary dcl and in 1905 the university itself granted him an honorary lld. He served the university as a trustee (1891–1906), senator (1893–1901), governor (1906–23), and chairman of the board of governors (1910–23), and assumed the office of chancellor upon Sir William Ralph Meredith’s death in 1923. Walker considered the university to be “the most important institution in Canada apart from the Government itself.” In 1918 the minister of education, Henry John Cody*, elaborated on Walker’s views: “He believed in the value and power of education in the whole life of the Province and Dominion. Education is at once the key to efficiency and the safeguard of democracy. . . . The universities . . . can render an incalculable service both to the higher life of our people and to the commercial and manufacturing interests of the country.”
Among its many recommendations the Flavelle report had proposed a museum for the university. Walker had been advocating such an institution since 1888 when he approached the premier, Oliver Mowat*. He believed that museums afforded the public an opportunity to appreciate the country and the world around them. They would be “shop windows” in which newcomers and Canadians of long standing could understand, at a single glance, the nation’s potential. But only in 1909 did the government consent to funding, and not before Walker and Edmund Boyd Osler had independently raised some money to establish the Royal Ontario Museum. Five years before, Walker had donated his library and his collection of fossils to set the organization in motion.
During their New York years, Walker and his wife had had a rich social life, complete with visits to museums, concert halls, and libraries where they cultivated a love of literature. Their return to Toronto in 1886, therefore, came as a disappointment. The Queen City was growing but it had none of the cultural life of other centres. Nonetheless, its artists and business class aspired to such development. What mainly lacked was leadership. Walker was able to provide the missing element and was unmatched in the range of his accomplishments. For example, local artists had for many years sought an art museum. Painter George Agnew Reid*, president of the Ontario Society of Artists, had been unable to establish a permanent one, but in 1900 Walker joined the cause, raised money privately, set up a board of trustees, and arranged with Harriet Elizabeth Mann Smith and Goldwin Smith* to have their house, the Grange, bequeathed to the Art Museum of Toronto. The Toronto Guild of Civic Art, which adjudicated public art and urban planning schemes, also benefited from his participation.
Walker’s involvement in art was more than organizational. He was also a collector, and though his holdings were not as extensive as some, he had extraordinary access to important private collections abroad and knew many artists personally. He advised his friends on building private galleries, and as a result many Canadian collections came to reflect his preference for Dutch interiors and the Barbizon School. He was fondest of Italian art and in 1894 lectured about it at the University of Toronto. In his later years he developed an exquisite collection of Japanese prints (now in the Royal Ontario Museum). His taste in art was cultivated by extensive reading and travelling. He journeyed throughout Europe, spent long periods in England, and visited South America and the Far East.
His cultural activities also took place at the national level. He felt his most important contribution to Canada was the founding in 1905, with historian George M. Wrong and librarian James Bain*, of the Champlain Society, an organization which publishes historical documents. His interest in history also led him to serve the National Battlefields Commission, the Quebec tercentenary committee, and the Historical Manuscripts Commission. During the 1914–18 war Lord Beaverbrook [Aitken*] sought his advice on developing the Canadian War Memorials Fund, and Walker successfully suggested that Canadian artists be commissioned to paint war scenes.
Walker was embroiled in a number of controversies concerning art. One stemmed from his involvement with the National Gallery of Canada. The Royal Canadian Academy of Arts had helped found the gallery in 1880. However, after a quarter-century it was still little more than a repository of diploma works. Artists lobbied for a more complete institution, and in 1907 the government appointed the Advisory Arts Council [see Sydney Arthur Fisher]. Walker became its head in 1910 and in 1913 chairman of the reincorporated National Gallery’s board of trustees. Among other tasks he and his colleagues were instructed to build up the national collection. None was an artist, and all came in for criticism, especially Walker because of his very definite likes and dislikes. The most public conflict took place in 1923 when the RCA took strong exception to the National Gallery’s selection of a jury which would choose works of art to represent Canada at the British Empire Exhibition. Critic Hector Willoughby Charlesworth* agreed and argued that Walker and gallery director Eric Brown* were wrong to show favouritism to Canadian painters whose work he considered “labored, dull, and unimaginative.” Charlesworth called the gallery a “national reproach,” echoing mp Charles Murphy* who in 1921 had labelled it “a haven for the special pets of Sir Byron Walker.” Despite the criticism, Walker had built a permanent foundation for the gallery, had seen that it survived the war years, and had helped secure relatively generous public funding. Indeed, his death was seen as a loss to the arts in Canada. Walker himself recognized the progress his generation of patrons facilitated: young Canadian painters had begun to “paint our country in moods, colours and atmosphere which cannot be mistaken for anything but Canada”; in a short period, he said in 1923, aesthetic standards had increased to the point that Canada had become much “nearer to the great centres of the world.”
Music also benefited from Walker’s dedication and acumen. He worked with the Toronto Conservatory of Music and its director, Augustus Stephen Vogt, and arranged the school’s affiliation with the university. Particular pleasure he derived from his involvement in the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir, founded by Vogt, which he helped reorganize in 1900. He secured funding for the group and was named its honorary president. He enjoyed travelling with the choir, and in early 1924 was on tour with them in the United States when he contracted pneumonia. Minnie, his wife of nearly 50 years, had just died and Walker coped with his grief by burying himself in his projects. He had begun to work long nights settling the estate of his friend Sir William Mackenzie, and was about to leave for England to attend the British Empire Exhibition when he expired.
Walker admonished students to avoid committing “the historical estimate.” He said they should not hold a person in high regard simply “because he accomplished work important for his time”; however, someone whose deeds were “important for all time” was to be valued. Certain of his contemporaries considered Walker to be too powerful and overextended into areas they said he knew little about. He was sometimes seen as “arrogant, domineering, and pretentious.” But Walker simply trusted his own judgement and ability. Furthermore, he “had an extraordinary power of creating enthusiasm.” In retrospect, the worst his enemies could say about him was that he was “a strong man with a liking for his own way of doing things.” “Remember each day,” he told the Schoolmen’s Club, “that we shall be judged by our children according to the use we have made of the really vast opportunity which fortune has placed in our hands.” Clearly he accomplished much, in many fields, at several levels, and in lasting ways.
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2750 ST — M165 — Grosvenor St — East Lindfield 207 — 9/10/18
State Transit (Willoughby) Scania K280UB/Bustech VST (MkIV) 2750 ST (2750) picks up speed as it crosses the York Street/Grosvenor Street Intersection preparing to get up to speed before entering the Bradfield Highway to cross the Sydney Harbour Bridge with an outbound route 207 to East Lindfield, operating under run M165.
State Transit — Willoughby Depot
Scania DC9-29-280 9.6-litre 280hp EEV 5-Cylinder Euro 5 Diesel
6-Speed ZF EcoLife 6AP1700B Automatic
Bustech VST (MkIV)
Bustech Pty. Ltd. Burleigh Heads, QLD 4220
*Specs are to my knowledge so please excuse any errors and feel free to share any corrections. : )