Candid Street Photography George Street, Sydney August, 2020
Historic Sydney Town Hall, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
The Sydney Town Hall is a late 19th-century heritage-listed town hall building in the city of Sydney, the capital city of New South Wales, Australia, housing the chambers of the Lord Mayor of Sydney, council offices, and venues for meetings and functions. It is located at 483 George Street, in the Sydney central business district opposite the Queen Victoria Building and alongside St Andrew's Cathedral. Sited above the Town Hall station and between the city shopping and entertainment precincts, the steps of the Town Hall are a popular meeting place. It was designed by John H. Wilson, Edward Bell, Albert Bond, Thomas Sapsford, John Hennessy and George McRae and built from 1869 to 1889 by Kelly and McLeod, Smith and Bennett, McLeod and Noble, J. Stewart and Co. It is also known as Town Hall, Centennial Hall, Main Hall, Peace Hall, Great Hall and Old Burial Ground. The Town Hall is listed on the (now defunct) Register of the National Estate and the New South Wales State Heritage Register and is part of the heritage-listed Town Hall precinct which includes the Queen Victoria Building, St Andrew's Cathedral, the Gresham Hotel and the former Bank of New South Wales. In latter years, it has been discovered that Town Hall lies on top of part of a cemetery complex. 7512
Candid Street Photography Town Hall, Sydney August, 2019
Bizarre ambiguity and irony at the meeting hall for the Australian Geranium Society in Turramurra, northern Sydney. George Orwell would have loved this sign. Freedom is Slavery. The wall is watching. 1 Gilroy Lane, Turramurra, in northern Sydney. My Samsung Galaxy S20+ mobile phone camera. Sanctioned by The Ministry of Truth.
The small town of Surat is really in the middle of nowhere, except a massive coal and coal gas basin in south west Queensland. It sits on the intersection of two highways and has a reasonable amount of tourist traffic passing through going somewhere else. But it has this rather impressive and differentShire Hall, which was the Shire Council headquarters. Warroo Shire Hall is a heritage-listed town hall at cnr Cordelia & William Streets, Surat, Maranoa Region, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Harry Marks and was built in 1929 by K O'Brien and C Turnbull. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 8 May 2007. A Court of Petty Sessions at Surat was gazetted in 1850 and a police building was erected. The Lands and Post Offices were soon represented and in 1859 a hotel was built. By the time that the town site was surveyed for land sales in 1863, a number of buildings had already been erected. Although Surat was superseded by St George as an administrative centre for the district in 1865, it continued to serve the surrounding area, which became Warroo Shire. Surat gained a school in 1874 and its first church in the late 1870s. In 1879 Cobb and Co set up a coach service from St George to Surat and on to Yuleba, constructing a staging post and store at Surat. This service was run until 1924, when it was the last coach route to be run in Australia. The site of the shire hall was acquired in 1882 by the Warroo Divisional Board. Tenders were called for the construction of a simple building, which was extended over the years. In 1903, the Divisional Board became Warroo Shire Council. In 1920 a second small building was constructed on the site as council offices. This building was later removed. The current hall was constructed in 1929 by builders K O'Brien and C Turnbull to the design of Harry Marks of the firm of Harry J Marks & Son of Toowoomba. James Marks, who arrived from England in 1866, founded the firm. He moved to Toowoomba in 1874, working as a contractor before setting up an architectural practice in 1880. In the late 1880s his eldest son, Henry James (Harry) joined the firm to train with his father. In 1892 the firm became James Marks & Son. The office designed a wide range of residential, institutional and commercial buildings. Harry's brother Reginald joined the practice in 1906 when James retired. Harry's son Charles also worked in the practice, though he joined the Defence Forces in 1915. In 1917 Reginald moved to Sydney. When Charles joined the practice in 1924, it became Harry J Marks and Son. Harry Marks was an innovative and idiosyncratic designer who introduced a number of his inventions into buildings he designed, including the patented Austral window. On a number of occasions Marks designed windows especially for a commissioned building and the windows in the Warroo hall are a distinctive feature of the design. They pivot to improve ventilation, a particular interest of Marks'. The building was officially opened on Friday 7 March 1930 by the Federal Member for Maranoa, James Hunter, having been funded by a £4,000 loan from the Queensland Government, the first time the shire had borrowed funds. The new building combined offices and a meeting room for the Shire Council with a large open hall to be used for a variety of public and private functions and events and which contained a stage and projection booth. Surat was connected to a reticulated water system in 1952 and electricity was laid on in 1953. The three clock faces in the tower are a memorial to Alex J Simpson who was Chairman of Warroo Shire from 1925 to 1946 and who was killed in a car accident in 1947. On each clock face, the letters of his name replace the usual numerals. The clock was officially unveiled on Saturday 3 April 1954. It was decided to illuminate them in 1961. The original hall was retained on site as a supper room, at first alongside the new hall, then to its rear, before being destroyed by a storm in 1962. A new civic centre was constructed in 1963 and the Shire Council has since used this venue for its meetings and offices. The hall continues in community use and has a new supper room, constructed in 1961, to its southern side. This building has no heritage significance, nor does the modern toilet block constructed to the rear of the hall. The hall is very intact and appears to have been painted in a version of the existing colour scheme since at least 1955. Part of the northern verandah has been enclosed and fitted with a small kitchenette, probably in the 1960s. This may be the 'Gentlemen's Dressing Room' referred to as being fitted with casement windows in 1957. The former Council Meeting Room and Shire Offices are currently used for community craft activities.
Queen Victoria Building - Sydney - NSW
A set of great looking stairs inside of the QVB building. What stories could they tell?
Different Musical Tastes
Some people like Boy George and some like like Daft Punk. Saw these two guys walking into town, and no they were not a couple. Just like the fact their looks define how we imagine their music.
TV Week Logie Nominations In Sydney, Australia; News And Lists Tonight in Sydney, Australia it's the TV Week Logies Nominations. Karl Stefanovic is battling to snatch back-to-back Gold Logies after nominations for the TV Week industry awards were announced today. After surprising many media and entertainment commentators including this agency by snatching the major prize last year, the Channel 9 Today co-host got both a Silver and Gold for most popular presenter on Australian TV. Karl will fight the ABC's Adam Hills, Offspring star Asher Keddie, The Project co-host Carrie Bickmore, ex Home & Away siren Esther Anderson and Nine comedian presenter Hamish Blake for the top honours when the TV Week Logies are awarded on April 15. Channel 7 leads the network pack, with 32 nominations across 22 categories, followed by Ten (26 nominations), the ABC (22 nominations), Nine (21 nominations), pay TV operator Foxtel (eight nominations) and SBS (seven nominations). While Packed To The Rafters favourite Rebecca Gibney was overlooked for a Gold Logie nod this year, she is squared off against her TV daughter Jessica Marais for Silver as most popular actress. Also in the running for Silver was Asher Keddie, acknowledged for her double effort - playing Nina Proudman on Ten's romantic comedy, Offspring, and publishing maverick Ita Buttrose in the ABC1 docu-drama, Paper Giants: The Birth Of Cleo. Making their Silver Logie nomination debut are Danielle Cormack (Kate Leigh in Nine's Underbelly Razor) and Esther Anderson (Charlie Buckton on Seven's soap Home & Away). In the TV fight for the boys, the Silver Logie for most popular actor will be fought between Daniel MacPherson (Wild Boys, Channel 7), Eddie Perfect (Offspring, Ten), Erik Thomson (Packed To The Rafters, Channel 7), Hugh Sheridan (Packed To The Rafters, Channel 7) and Ray Meagher (Home & Away, Channel 7). Despite turning her back on a TV career for a spot on Melbourne breakfast radio this year, Chrissie Swan secured a nomination as most popular presenter for her role on Ten's morning chat show, The Circle. The nominations were held at Sydney's Park Hyatt, hosted by Nine's Natalie Gruzlewski and Ten's Bondi Vet, Chris Brown. FULL LIST OF 2012 LOGIE NOMINATIONS: TV WEEK GOLD LOGIE AWARD Most Popular TV personality Adam Hills (Spicks And Specks, ABC1/Adam Hills In Gordon St Tonight, ABC1) Asher Keddie (Nina Proudman,Offspring, Network Ten /Ita Buttrose, Paper Giants: The Birth Of Cleo, ABC1) Carrie Bickmore (The Project, Network Ten) Esther Anderson (Charlie Buckton, Home And Away, Channel Seven) Hamish Blake (Hamish & Andy's Gap Year, Nine Network) Karl Stefanovic (Today, Nine Network) TV WEEK SILVER LOGIE Most Popular Actor Daniel MacPherson (Jack Keenan, Wild Boys, Channel Seven) Eddie Perfect (Mick Holland, Offspring, Network Ten) Erik Thomson (Dave Rafter, Packed To The Rafters, Channel Seven) Hugh Sheridan (Ben Rafter, Packed To The Rafters, Channel Seven) Ray Meagher (Alf Stewart, Home And Away, Channel Seven) TV WEEK SILVER LOGIE Most Popular Actress Asher Keddie (Nina Proudman, Offspring, Network Ten /Ita Buttrose, Paper Giants: The Birth Of Cleo, ABC1) Danielle Cormack (Kate Leigh, Underbelly: Razor, Nine Network /Angela Travis, East West 101, SBS) Esther Anderson (Charlie Buckton, Home And Away, Channel Seven) Jessica Marais (Rachel Rafter, Packed To The Rafters, Channel Seven) Rebecca Gibney (Julie Rafter, Packed To The Rafters, Channel Seven) TV WEEK SILVER LOGIE Most Popular Presenter Adam Hills (Spicks And Specks,ABC1/Adam Hills In Gordon St Tonight, ABC1) Carrie Bickmore (The Project, Network Ten) Chrissie Swan (The Circle, Network Ten) Hamish Blake (Hamish & Andy's Gap Year, Nine Network) Karl Stefanovic (Today, Nine Network) MOST POPULAR NEW MALE TALENT Dan Ewing (Heath Braxton, Home And Away, Channel Seven) James Mason (Chris Pappas, Neighbours, Network Ten) Peter Kuruvita (Host, My Sri Lanka With Peter Kuruvita, SBS) Steve Peacocke (Darryl "Brax" Braxton, Home And Away, Channel Seven) Tom Wren (Dr Doug Graham, Winners & Losers, Channel Seven) MOST POPULAR NEW FEMALE TALENT Anna McGahan (Nellie Cameron, Underbelly: Razor, Nine Network) Chelsie Preston Crayford (Tilly Devine, Underbelly: Razor, Nine Network) Demi Harman (Sasha Bezmel, Home And Away, Channel Seven) Melissa Bergland (Jenny Gross, Winners & Losers Channel Seven) Tiffiny Hall (Trainer, The Biggest Loser Australia, Network Ten) MOST POPULAR DRAMA SERIES Home And Away (Channel Seven) Offspring (Network Ten) Packed To The Rafters (Channel Seven) Underbelly: Razor (Nine Network) Winners And Losers (Channel Seven) MOST POPULAR LIGHT ENTERTAINMENT PROGRAM Australia's Got Talent (Channel Seven) Hamish & Andy's Gap Year (Nine Network) Spicks And Specks (ABC1) Sunrise (Channel Seven) The Project (Network Ten) MOST POPULAR LIFESTYLE PROGRAM Better Homes And Gardens (Channel Seven) Getaway (Nine Network) iFISH (Network Ten) Ready Steady Cook (Network Ten) Selling Houses Australia Extreme (LifeStyle Channel, FOXTEL MOST POPULAR SPORTS PROGRAM 2011 AFL Grand Final (Network Ten) Before The Game (Network Ten) The AFL Footy Show (Nine Network) The NRL Footy Show (Nine Network) Wide World Of Sports (Nine Network) MOST POPULAR REALITY PROGRAM Beauty And The Geek Australia (Channel Seven) MasterChef Australia (Network Ten) My Kitchen Rules (Channel Seven) The Block (Nine Network) The X Factor Australia (Channel Seven) MOST POPULAR FACTUAL PROGRAM Bondi Rescue (Network Ten) Bondi Vet (Network Ten) Border Security: Australia's Front Line (Channel Seven) RPA (Nine Network) World's Strictest Parents (Channel Seven) MOST OUTSTANDING NOMINEES (peer voted by industry) TV WEEK SILVER LOGIE Most Outstanding Drama Series, Miniseries or Telemovie Cloudstreet (Showcase, FOXTEL) Offspring (Network Ten) Paper Giants: The Birth Of Cleo (ABC1) The Slap (ABC1) Underbelly: Razor (Nine Network) TV WEEK SILVER LOGIE Most Outstanding Actor Alex Dimitriades (The Slap, ABC1) David Wenham (Killing Time, TV1, FOXTEL) Don Hany (East West 101, SBS) Geoff Morrell (Cloudstreet, Showcase, FOXTEL) Rob Carlton (Paper Giants: The Birth Of Cleo, ABC1) TV WEEK SILVER LOGIE Most Outstanding Actress Asher Keddie (Paper Giants: The Birth Of Cleo, ABC1) Diana Glenn (Killing Time, TV1, FOXTEL) Essie Davis (The Slap, ABC1) Kat Stewart (Offspring, Network Ten) Melissa George (The Slap, ABC1) GRAHAM KENNEDY AWARD FOR MOST OUTSTANDING NEW TALENT Anna McGahan (Underbelly: Razor, Nine Network) Chelsie Preston Crayford (Underbelly: Razor, Nine Network) Hamish Macdonald (Senior Foreign Correspondent, Network Ten) Hamish Michael (Crownies, ABC1) Melissa Bergland (Winners & Losers, Channel Seven) MOST OUTSTANDING NEWS COVERAGE Lockyer Valley Flood (Brisbane News, Channel Seven) Qantas Grounded (Sky News National, Sky News Australia, FOXTEL) Skype Scandal (Ten News At Five, Network Ten) The Queensland Flood (Nine News, Nine Network) Unfinished Business (SBS World News Australia, SBS) MOST OUTSTANDING PUBLIC AFFAIRS REPORT A Bloody Business (Four Corners/Sarah Ferguson, ABC1) After The Deluge: The Valley (Paul Lockyer, ABC1) Rescue 500 (Sunday Night, Channel Seven) Salma In The Square (Foreign Correspondent/Mark Corcoran, ABC1) Tour Of Duty: Australia's Secret War (Network Ten) MOST OUTSTANDING LIGHT ENTERTAINMENT PROGRAM Australia's Got Talent (Channel Seven) Gruen Planet (ABC1) Spicks And Specks (ABC1) Talkin Bout Your Generation (Network Ten) The Project (Network Ten) MOST OUTSTANDING SPORTS COVERAGE 2011 Australian Open Tennis (Channel Seven) 2011 Bathurst 1000 (Channel Seven) 2011 Melbourne Cup Carnival (Channel Seven) State Of Origin III (Nine Network) Tour de France 2011 (SBS) MOST OUTSTANDING CHILDRENS PROGRAM Camp Orange: Wrong Town, (Nickelodeon, FOXTEL) Lockie Leonard (Nine Network) My Place (ABC3) Saturday Disney (Channel Seven) Scope (Network Ten) MOST OUTSTANDING FACTUAL PROGRAM Go Back To Where You Came From (SBS) Leaky Boat (ABC1) Mrs Carey's Concert (ABC1) Outback Fight Club (SBS) Tony Robinson Explores Australia (The History Channel, (FOXTEL) The TV Week Logie Awards ceremony will take place at Crown Melbourne on Sunday 15th April. Good luck to all. Websites TV Week Logies www.tvweek.ninemsn.com.au/logies TV Week www.tvweek.com.au Park Hyatt, Sydney www.sydney.park.hyatt.com Crown Melbourne www.crownmelbourne.com.au Eva Rinaldi Photography Flickr www.flickr.com/evarinaldiphotography Eva Rinaldi Photography www.evarinaldi.com The Lantern Group www.lanterngroup.com.au Music News Australia www.musicnewsaustralia.com
Australia's oldest Church
The lovely historic Ebenezer Presbyterian Church on the shores of the Hawkesbury River New South Wales Australia. It is still in use today Some Australian history for you. Our Heritage Historical Background Ebenezer Church Ebenezer Church came into being following the arrival in the colony of New South Wales of eight families on board the ‘Coromandel’ in June 1802. These families – Davison, Hall, Howe, Johnston, Johnstone, Mein, Stubbs and Turnbull – came to the new colony with a request to be settled together. Their wish was granted by Governor King and they moved to their 100-acre land grants at Portland Head (Ebenezer) on the Hawkesbury River early in 1803. They were joined by seven other families – Arndell, Bushell, Grono, Cavanough, Jacklin, Suddis and Jones – and met regularly on Sundays for services on Ebenezer Mount or in the homes of settlers. One of their members, James Mein, led the group in prayers and hymns. These settlers were people of various denominations but they came together as one congregation. In 1808 at a special meeting in the home of Dr Thomas Arndell, a surgeon who came out on the First Fleet, each family pledged itself to the building of a church and school. The total cost of £400 was to be obtained from voluntary subscriptions. There was no assistance by way of finance or labour from the government. Pioneer Owen Cavanough donated four acres of land on which to build the church. Andrew Johnston designed the church and supervised its construction. George Hall swam his bullocks across the river to haul the stone to the site. Built of locally obtained materials – sandstone, cedar wood and hardwood – it was constructed in 1809. Despite their general lack of agricultural background the settlers of Portland Head were to become successful farmers and were to make a major contribution to the Hawkesbury community and the colony. When Governor Lachlan Macquarie visited Portland Head by river on 4th December 1810 he was impressed with their progress for he recorded in his diary: ‘The farms on both banks, especially those on the left bank, are rich and well cultivated, and make a pretty appearance from the water, being generally interspersed with extensive orchards of peaches and other fruits.’ Under the leadership of Presbyterian James Mein, and also due to the influence of the Reverend John Dunmore Lang from Sydney town, Ebenezer Church became the first Presbyterian Church in Australia. The building was originally divided by a cedar partition into two rooms, one used for church services and the other as a school. The school began in 1810 under schoolmaster John Youl and remained open with teachers such as John Anderson, an ex-convict transported for his involvement in the Scottish Uprising of 1820, and Matthew McFetridge until 1887 when a new public school opened. The first ordained minister was Reverend John McGarvie who agreed to migrate to the colony from Scotland in 1825. Prior to this time they were led by ‘Pastor’ James Mein and intinerant preachers, especially Rowland Hassall and John Youl of the London Missionary Society. Ebenezer Church, the oldest existing church in Australia, is still an active church today.
Lake Gillawarna || Sydney
A horizon gap at sunset looked possible last Sunday which would have been awesome.... but not quite unfortunately. I wanted to try this location for some time now so it was a good excuse to go. The lake edges have been shored up and bird sanctuaries setup in the middle of the lakes and at sunset 100s of parrots were flying and perching in the trees around me. 1/30 second wasn't fast enough to freeze and get a sun flare but I liked the reflection in the lake.
George Street, Sydney.(looking north). St.Andrew's Cathedral is on the left alongside the Town Hall. The Queen Victoria Building can be seen beyond that.
Sydney Town Hall
It was one of those moments when you're glad your phone can take pictures! Sydney Town Hall on a rainy night.
‘There may be times when we are powerless to prevent injustice, but there must never be a time when we fail to protest’ - Elie Wiesel Street Photography Town Hall, Sydney CBD July, 2019
Sydney James and St Georges Hall
St Georges Hall . Having already utilised the Hall regularly for various events, Sydney was excited by it's potential. When Piette Saw and Planing Mills granted him the lease from the late 50's onwards he invested large sums of his own money to achieve his vision. He even employed two foor managers and had the ballroom floor resin polished twice yearly. He also employed a full time cleaner for the venue. In the months which followed this photograph Sydney would also install a stage run-out into the audience for his Olde Tyme Music Hall shows (which can be clearly seen on a couple of the earlier photos). Sydney's trouble- shooting skills also ensured that the site soon lost it's once tarnished reputation which earned him the gratitude of the local Police, Tourism officials and patrons alike. A Golden Era of music, shows, dances and iconic pop performances followed. The Sporting events and Roller Skating are also fondly remembered N.B. Credit for the success of the venue and rise to mega status was recently incorrectly attributed by one Press reporter. The subject of the Press feature was an individual to whom Sydney subleased the ballroom only briefly and in good faith from 1965 until October 1966 - when the venue closed!
Lunenburg, World War I Monument
Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, Canada a UNESCO World Heritage Site you will come across a Memorial is a four-sided grey granite Monument erected by the citizens of Lunenburg. It is in the memorial grounds beside the Town Hall at the north end of King Street, corner of Cumberland Street. On the top is a life size statue of an infantry soldier. Above the inscriptions on each of the four sides is an indecipherable crest, same on all four sides. South Side THIS MONUMENT IS ERECTED BY THE CITIZENS OF THE TOWN OF LUNENBURG TO THE HONOURED MEMORY OF THE HEROS NAMED HEREON WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES FOR KING AND COUNTRY AND IN HONOUR OF THE GALLANT SOLDIERS FROM THIS TOWN AND VICINITY WHO SERVED SO VALIANTLY IN THE GREAT WAR 1914-1918 Ypres 1915 West Side FRED CONRAD GEORGE DIEHL EZRA FEENER HARRY GREER BRUNO HEBB CECIL HEBB ROGER HYNICK RONALD KING ROY KING OSCAR LEGAG WILLIAM NOWE NORMAN TANNER W.C. WALTERS ISAAC WILKIE HARVEY YOUNG LUKE YOUNG LEO ZINCK Dulce et decorum est pro patria more Somme 1916 North Side In Flanders Fields the Poppies blow Between the Crosses row on row That mark our place; and in the sky The larks still bravely singing fly Scarce heard amidst the guns below We are the dead - short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders Fields. WAR DECLARED AUGUST 4, 1914 ARMISTICE SIGNED NOVEMBER 11, 1918. PEACE DECLARED JULY 19, 1918 Vimy 1917 East Side In Memoriam DEBNEY BAILLEY SYDNEY BARRINGER CLARENCE CONRAD CHARLES E. COSSMAN CECIL ARNOLD LOHNES LAWRENCE LOHNES ERIC HAMILTON LANE NELSON MEISTER ADOLPHUS MORASH H. MARSHALL MOSSMAN DONALD PURCELL STEWART RICHARDSON CLARENCE RITCIE ELSON SCHWARTZ HARRY SHUPE BEVERLEY SMITH ELLISWORTH SMITH CARLOS WINFRID MOSHER JOHN SJOLIN Passchendale 1918
CBD & South East Light Rail - George Street - Update 16 January 2019 (2)
At Sydney Town Hall! With thanks to a friend (he knows who he is) and against a backdrop of St Andrew's Anglican Cathedral and Sydney Town Hall, my pictures show light rail coming to life! For the most part the barriers towards the Quay have come down. Town Hall stop takes shape and finishing work is being undertaken at the APS/OHW transfer point. Meantime Bathurst Street intersection tracks are complete and stretch all the way down the hill to Chinatown and Rawson Place.
Valente and Juma fighting...
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a big cat, a feline in the Panthera genus, and is the only Panthera species found in the Americas. The jaguar is the third-largest feline after the tiger and the lion, and the largest and most powerful feline in the Western Hemisphere. The jaguar's present range extends from Mexico across much of Central America and south to Paraguay and northern Argentina. Apart from a known and possibly breeding population in Arizona (southeast of Tucson), the cat has largely been extirpated from the United States since the early 1900s. This spotted cat most closely resembles the leopard physically, although it is usually larger and of sturdier build and its behavioral and habitat characteristics are closer to those of the tiger. While dense rainforest is its preferred habitat, the jaguar will range across a variety of forested and open terrain. It is strongly associated with the presence of water and is notable, along with the tiger, as a feline that enjoys swimming. The jaguar is a largely solitary, stalk-and-ambush predator, and is opportunistic in prey selection. It is also an apex and keystone predator, playing an important role in stabilizing ecosystems and regulating the populations of prey species. The jaguar has an exceptionally powerful bite, even relative to the other big cats. This allows it to pierce the shells of armoured reptiles and to employ an unusual killing method: it bites directly through the skull of prey between the ears to deliver a fatal bite to the brain. The jaguar is a near threatened species and its numbers are declining. Threats include habitat loss and fragmentation. While international trade in jaguars or their parts is prohibited, the cat is still regularly killed by humans, particularly in conflicts with ranchers and farmers in South America. Although reduced, its range remains large; given its historical distribution, the jaguar has featured prominently in the mythology of numerous indigenous American cultures, including that of the Maya and Aztec. Etymology A jaguar at the Milwaukee County Zoological GardensThe word jaguar is pronounced /ˈdʒæɡwɑr/ or, in British English, /ˈdʒæɡjuː.ər/. It comes to English from one of the Tupi-Guarani languages, presumably the Amazonian trade language Tupinambá, via Portuguese jaguar. The Tupian word, yaguara "beast", sometimes translated as "dog", is used for any carnivorous mammal. The specific word for jaguar is yaguareté, with the suffix -eté meaning "real" or "true". The first component of its taxonomic designation, Panthera, is Latin, from the Greek word for leopard, πάνθηρ, the type species for the genus. This has been said to derive from the παν- "all" and θήρ from θηρευτής "predator", meaning "predator of all" (animals), though this may be a folk etymology—it may instead be ultimately of Sanskrit origin, from pundarikam, the Sanskrit word for "tiger". Onca is the Portuguese onça, with the cedilla dropped for typographical reasons, found in English as ounce for the Snow Leopard, Uncia uncia. It derives from the Latin lyncea lynx, with the letter L confused with the definite article (Italian lonza, Old French l'once). In many Central and South American countries, the cat is referred to as el tigre ("the tiger") Taxonomy The jaguar, Panthera onca, is the only extant New World member of the Panthera genus. DNA evidence shows that the lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar, snow leopard, and clouded leopard share a common ancestor and that this group is between six and ten million years old; the fossil record points to the emergence of Panthera just two to 3.8 million years ago. Phylogenetic studies generally have shown that the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is basal to this group. The position of the remaining species varies between studies and is effectively unresolved. Based on morphological evidence, British zoologist Reginald Pocock concluded that the jaguar is most closely related to the leopard. However, DNA evidence is inconclusive and the position of the jaguar relative to the other species varies between studies. Fossils of extinct Panthera species, such as the European Jaguar (Panthera gombaszoegensis) and the American Lion (Panthera atrox), show characteristics of both the lion and the jaguar. Analysis of jaguar mitochondrial DNA has dated the species lineage to between 280,000 and 510,000 years ago, later than suggested by fossil records.[19Geographical variation While numerous subspecies of the jaguar have been recognized, recent research suggests just three. Geographical barriers, such as the Amazon river, limit gene flow within the species.The last taxonomic delineation of the jaguar subspecies was performed by Pocock in 1939. Based on geographic origins and skull morphology, he recognized eight subspecies. However, he did not have access to sufficient specimens to critically evaluate all subspecies, and he expressed doubt about the status of several. Later consideration of his work suggested only three subspecies should be recognized. Recent studies have also failed to find evidence for well defined subspecies, and are no longer recognized. Larson (1997) studied the morphological variation in the jaguar and showed that there is clinal north–south variation, but also that the differentiation within the supposed subspecies is larger than that between them and thus does not warrant subspecies subdivision. A genetic study by Eizirik and coworkers in 2001 confirmed the absence of a clear geographical subspecies structure, although they found that major geographical barriers such as the Amazon River limited the exchange of genes between the different populations. A subsequent, more detailed, study confirmed the predicted population structure within the Colombian jaguars. Pocock's subspecies divisions are still regularly listed in general descriptions of the cat. Seymour grouped these in three subspecies. Panthera onca onca: Venezuela through the Amazon, including P. onca peruviana (Peruvian Jaguar): Coastal Peru P. onca hernandesii (Mexican Jaguar): Western Mexico – including P. onca centralis (Central American Jaguar): El Salvador to Colombia P. onca arizonensis (Arizonan Jaguar): Southern Arizona to Sonora, Mexico P. onca veraecrucis: Central Texas to Southeastern Mexico P. onca goldmani (Goldman's Jaguar): Yucatán Peninsula to Belize and Guatemala P. onca palustris (the largest subspecies, weighing more than 135 kg or 300 lb): The Pantanal regions of Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, along the Paraguay River into Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. Physical characteristics The jaguar is a compact and well-muscled animal. There are significant variations in size and weight: weights are normally in the range of 56–96 kilograms (124–211 lb). Larger males have been recorded at 160 kilograms (350 lb) (roughly matching a tigress or lioness), and smaller ones have extremely low weights of 36 kilograms (80 lb). Females are typically 10–20% smaller than males. The length of the cat varies from 1.62–1.83 metres (5.3–6 ft), and its tail may add a further 75 centimeters (30 in). It stands about 67–76 centimeters (27–30 in) tall at the shoulders. The head of the jaguar is robust and the jaw extremely powerful. The size of jaguars tends to increase the farther south they are located. Jaguar skull and jawboneFurther variations in size have been observed across regions and habitats, with size tending to increase from the north to south. A study of the jaguar in the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve on the Mexican Pacific coast, showed ranges of just 30–50 kilograms (66–110 lb), about the size of the cougar. By contrast, a study of the Jaguar in the Brazilian Pantanal region found average weights of 100 kilograms (220 lb) and weights of 300 lb or more are not uncommon in old males. Forest jaguars are frequently darker and considerably smaller than those found in open areas (the Pantanal is an open wetland basin), possibly due to the smaller numbers of large herbivorous prey in forest areas. A short and stocky limb structure makes the jaguar adept at climbing, crawling and swimming. The head is robust and the jaw extremely powerful. The jaguar has the strongest bite of all felids capable of biting down with 2000 lbs of force twice the strength of a lion, and the second strongest of all mammals after the spotted hyena; this strength is an adaptation that allows the jaguar to pierce turtle shells. A comparative study of bite force adjusted for body size ranked it as the top felid, alongside the clouded leopard and ahead of the lion and tiger. It has been reported that "an individual jaguar can drag a 360 kg (800 lb) bull 8 m (25 ft) in its jaws and pulverize the heaviest bones". The jaguar hunts wild animals weighing up to 300 kilograms (660 lb) in dense jungle, and its short and sturdy physique is thus an adaptation to its prey and environment. A melanistic jaguar. Melanism is the result of a dominant allele but remains relatively rare in jaguars.The base coat of the jaguar is generally a tawny yellow, but can range to reddish-brown and black. The cat is covered in rosettes for camouflage in its jungle habitat. The spots vary over individual coats and between individual Jaguars: rosettes may include one or several dots, and the shape of the dots varies. The spots on the head and neck are generally solid, as are those on the tail, where they may merge to form a band. The underbelly, throat and outer surface of the legs and lower flanks are white. A condition known as melanism occurs in the species. The melanistic form is less common than the spotted form (it occurs at about six percent of the population) of jaguars and is the result of a dominant allele. Jaguars with melanism appear entirely black, although their spots are still visible on close examination. Melanistic Jaguars are informally known as black panthers, but do not form a separate species. Rare albino individuals, sometimes called white panthers, also occur among jaguars, as with the other big cats. While the jaguar closely resembles the leopard, it is sturdier and heavier, and the two animals can be distinguished by their rosettes: the rosettes on a jaguar's coat are larger, fewer in number, usually darker, and have thicker lines and small spots in the middle that the leopard lacks. Jaguars also have rounder heads and shorter, stockier limbs compared to leopards.[35  Reproduction and life cycle Jaguar females reach sexual maturity at about two years of age, and males at three or four. The cat is believed to mate throughout the year in the wild, although births may increase when prey is plentiful. Research on captive male jaguars supports the year-round mating hypothesis, with no seasonal variation in semen traits and ejaculatory quality; low reproductive success has also been observed in captivity. Female estrous is 6–17 days out of a full 37-day cycle, and females will advertise fertility with urinary scent marks and increased vocalization. Both sexes will range more widely than usual during courtship. Mother about to pick up a cub by the neckMating pairs separate after the act, and females provide all parenting. The gestation period lasts 93–105 days; females give birth to up to four cubs, and most commonly to two. The mother will not tolerate the presence of males after the birth of cubs, given a risk of infanticide; this behaviour is also found in the tiger. The young are born blind, gaining sight after two weeks. Cubs are weaned at three months but remain in the birth den for six months before leaving to accompany their mother on hunts. They will continue in their mother's company for one to two years before leaving to establish a territory for themselves. Young males are at first nomadic, jostling with their older counterparts until they succeed in claiming a territory. Typical lifespan in the wild is estimated at around 12–15 years; in captivity, the jaguar lives up to 23 years, placing it among the longest-lived cats. Social activity Like most cats, the jaguar is solitary outside mother-cub groups. Adults generally meet only to court and mate (though limited non-courting socialization has been observed anecdotally) and carve out large territories for themselves. Female territories, which range from 25 to 40 square kilometers in size, may overlap, but the animals generally avoid one another. Male ranges cover roughly twice as much area, varying in size with the availability of game and space, and do not overlap. The jaguar uses scrape marks, urine, and feces to mark its territory. Like the other big cats, the jaguar is capable of roaring (the male more powerfully) and does so to warn territorial and mating competitors away; intensive bouts of counter-calling between individuals have been observed in the wild. Their roar often resembles a repetitive cough, and they may also vocalize mews and grunts. Mating fights between males occur, but are rare, and aggression avoidance behaviour has been observed in the wild. When it occurs, conflict is typically over territory: a male's range may encompass that of two or three females, and he will not tolerate intrusions by other adult males. The jaguar is often described as nocturnal, but is more specifically crepuscular (peak activity around dawn and dusk). Both sexes hunt, but males travel further each day than females, befitting their larger territories. The jaguar may hunt during the day if game is available and is a relatively energetic feline, spending as much as 50–60% of its time active. The jaguar's elusive nature and the inaccessibility of much of its preferred habitat make it a difficult animal to sight, let alone study. Hunting and diet Illustration of a jaguar battling a boa constrictor Illustration of a jaguar killing a tapirLike all cats, the jaguar is an obligate carnivore, feeding only on meat. It is an opportunistic hunter and its diet encompasses 87 species. The jaguar prefers large prey and will take adult caiman, deer, capybara, tapirs, peccaries, dogs, foxes, and sometimes even anacondas . However, the cat will eat any small species that can be caught, including frogs, mice, birds, fish, sloths, monkeys, and turtles; a study conducted in Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in Belize, for example, revealed that jaguars there had a diet that consisted primarily of armadillos and pacas. Some jaguars will also take domestic livestock, including adult cattle and horses. The jaguar has an exceptionally powerful bite, even relative to the other big cats. It is an adaptation that allows it to pierce the shells of armoured reptiles.While the jaguar employs the deep-throat bite-and-suffocation technique typical among Panthera, it prefers a killing method unique amongst cats: it pierces directly through the temporal bones of the skull between the ears of prey (especially the Capybara) with its canine teeth, piercing the brain. This may be an adaptation to "cracking open" turtle shells; following the late Pleistocene extinctions, armoured reptiles such as turtles would have formed an abundant prey base for the jaguar. The skull bite is employed with mammals in particular; with reptiles such as caiman, the jaguar may leap on to the back of the prey and sever the cervical vertebrae, immobilizing the target. While capable of cracking turtle shells, the jaguar may simply reach into the shell and scoop out the flesh. With prey such as smaller dogs, a paw swipe to the skull may be sufficient in killing it. The jaguar is a stalk-and-ambush rather than a chase predator. The cat will walk slowly down forest paths, listening for and stalking prey before rushing or ambushing. The jaguar attacks from cover and usually from a target's blind spot with a quick pounce; the species' ambushing abilities are considered nearly peerless in the animal kingdom by both indigenous people and field researchers, and are probably a product of its role as an apex predator in several different environments. The ambush may include leaping into water after prey, as a jaguar is quite capable of carrying a large kill while swimming; its strength is such that carcasses as large as a heifer can be hauled up a tree to avoid flood levels. On killing prey, the jaguar will drag the carcass to a thicket or other secluded spot. It begins eating at the neck and chest, rather than the midsection. The heart and lungs are consumed, followed by the shoulders. The daily food requirement of a 34 kilogram animal, at the extreme low end of the species' weight range, has been estimated at 1.4 kilograms. For captive animals in the 50–60 kilogram range, more than 2 kilograms of meat daily is recommended. In the wild, consumption is naturally more erratic; wild cats expend considerable energy in the capture and kill of prey, and may consume up to 25 kilograms of meat at one feeding, followed by periods of famine. Unlike all other species in the Panthera genus, jaguars very rarely attack humans. Most of the scant cases where jaguars turn to taking a human show that the animal is either old with damaged teeth or is wounded. Sometimes, if scared, jaguars in captivity may lash out at zookeepers.  Ecology  Distribution and habitat The jaguar has been attested in the fossil record for two million years and it has been an American cat since crossing the Bering Land Bridge during the Pleistocene epoch; the immediate ancestor of modern animals is Panthera onca augusta, which was larger than the contemporary cat. Its present range extends from Mexico, through Central America and into South America, including much of Amazonian Brazil. The countries included in this range are Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica (particularly on the Osa Peninsula), Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, United States and Venezuela. The jaguar is now extinct in El Salvador and Uruguay. It occurs in the 400 km² Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in Belize, the 5,300 km² Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, the approximately 15,000 km² Manú National Park in Peru, the approximately 26,000 km² Xingu National Park in Brazil, and numerous other reserves throughout its range. The jaguar can range across a variety of forested and open habitat, but is strongly associated with presence of water.The inclusion of the United States in the list is based on occasional sightings in the southwest, particularly in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. In the early 1900s, the jaguar's range extended as far north as the Grand Canyon, and as far west as Southern California. The jaguar is a protected species in the United States under the Endangered Species Act, which has stopped the shooting of the animal for its pelt. In 2004, wildlife officials in Arizona photographed and documented jaguars in the southern part of the state. For any permanent population to thrive, protection from killing, an adequate prey base, and connectivity with Mexican populations are essential. On February 25, 2009 a 118 lb Jaguar was caught, radio-collared and released in an area southwest of Tucson, Arizona; this is farther north than had previously been expected and represents a sign that there may be a permanent breeding population of Jaguars within southern Arizona. It was later confirmed that the animal is indeed the same male individual (known as 'Macho B') that was photographed in 2004 and is now the oldest known Jaguar in the wild (approximately 15 years old.) On Monday March 2, 2009, Macho B, which is the only jaguar spotted in the U.S. in more than a decade, was recaptured and euthanized after he was found to be suffering from kidney failure. Completion of the United States–Mexico barrier as currently proposed will reduce the viability of any population currently residing in the United States, by reducing gene flow with Mexican populations, and prevent any further northward expansion for the species. The historic range of the species included much of the southern half of the United States, and in the south extended much farther to cover most of the South American continent. In total, its northern range has receded 1,000 kilometers southward and its southern range 2,000 km northward. Ice age fossils of the jaguar, dated between 40,000 and 11,500 years ago, have been discovered in the United States, including some at an important site as far north as Missouri. Fossil evidence shows jaguars of up to 190 kg (420 lb), much larger than the contemporary average for the animal. The habitat of the cat includes the rain forests of South and Central America, open, seasonally flooded wetlands, and dry grassland terrain. Of these habitats, the jaguar much prefers dense forest; the cat has lost range most rapidly in regions of drier habitat, such as the Argentinian pampas, the arid grasslands of Mexico, and the southwestern United States. The cat will range across tropical, subtropical, and dry deciduous forests (including, historically, oak forests in the United States). The jaguar is strongly associated with water and it often prefers to live by rivers, swamps, and in dense rainforest with thick cover for stalking prey. Jaguars have been found at elevations as high as 3,800 m, but they typically avoid montane forest and are not found in the high plateau of central Mexico or in the Andes. Substantial evidence exists that there is also a colony of non-native melanistic leopards or jaguars inhabiting the rainforests around Sydney, Australia. A local report compiled statements from over 450 individuals recounting their stories of sighting large black cats in the area and confidential NSW Government documents regarding the matter proved wildlife authorities were so concerned about the big cats and the danger to humans, they commissioned an expert to catch it. The three-day hunt later failed, but ecologist Johannes J. Bauer warned: "Difficult as it seems to accept, the most likely explanation is the presence of a large, feline predator. In this area, [it is] most likely a leopard, less likely a jaguar." Ecological role The adult jaguar is an apex predator, meaning that it exists at the top of its food chain and is not preyed on in the wild. The jaguar has also been termed a keystone species, as it is assumed, through controlling the population levels of prey such as herbivorous and granivorous mammals, apex felids maintain the structural integrity of forest systems. However, accurately determining what effect species like the jaguar have on ecosystems is difficult, because data must be compared from regions where the species is absent as well as its current habitats, while controlling for the effects of human activity. It is accepted that mid-sized prey species undergo population increases in the absence of the keystone predators and it has been hypothesized that this has cascading negative effects. However, field work has shown this may be natural variability and that the population increases may not be sustained. Thus, the keystone predator hypothesis is not favoured by all scientists. The jaguar also has an effect on other predators. The jaguar and the cougar, the next largest feline of the Americas, are often sympatric (related species sharing overlapping territory) and have often been studied in conjunction. Where sympatric with the jaguar, the cougar is smaller than normal and is smaller than the local jaguars. The jaguar tends to take larger prey and the cougar smaller, reducing the latter's size. This situation may be advantageous to the cougar. Its broader prey niche, including its ability to take smaller prey, may give it an advantage over the jaguar in human-altered landscapes; while both are classified as near-threatened species, the cougar has a significantly larger current distribution.  Conservation status Jaguar populations are rapidly declining. The animal is considered Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, meaning it may be threatened with extinction in the near future. The loss of parts of its range, including its virtual elimination from its historic northern areas and the increasing fragmentation of the remaining range, have contributed to this status. The 1960s saw particularly significant declines, with more than 15,000 jaguar skins brought out of the Brazilian Amazon yearly; the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of 1973 brought about a sharp decline in the pelt trade. Detailed work performed under the auspices of the Wildlife Conservation Society reveal that the animal has lost 37% of its historic range, with its status unknown in an additional 18%. More encouragingly, the probability of long-term survival was considered high in 70% of its remaining range, particularly in the Amazon basin and the adjoining Gran Chaco and Pantanal. The major risks to the jaguar include deforestation across its habitat, increasing competition for food with human beings, poaching, hurricanes in northern parts of its range, and the behaviour of ranchers who will often kill the cat where it preys on livestock. When adapted to the prey, the jaguar has been shown to take cattle as a large portion of its diet; while land clearance for grazing is a problem for the species, the jaguar population may have increased when cattle were first introduced to South America as the animals took advantage of the new prey base. This willingness to take livestock has induced ranch owners to hire full-time jaguar hunters, and the cat is often shot on sight. The Pantanal, Brazil, seen here in flood condition, is a critical jaguar range area.The jaguar is regulated as an Appendix I species under CITES: all international trade in jaguars or their parts is prohibited. All hunting of jaguars is prohibited in Argentina, Belize, Colombia, French Guiana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, the United States (where it is listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act), Uruguay and Venezuela. Hunting of jaguars is restricted to "problem animals" in Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, while trophy hunting is still permitted in Bolivia. The species has no legal protection in Ecuador or Guyana. Current conservation efforts often focus on educating ranch owners and promoting ecotourism. The jaguar is generally defined as an umbrella species — a species whose home range and habitat requirements are sufficiently broad that, if protected, numerous other species of smaller range will also be protected. Umbrella species serve as "mobile links" at the landscape scale, in the jaguar's case through predation. Conservation organizations may thus focus on providing viable, connected habitat for the jaguar, with the knowledge that other species will also benefit. Given the inaccessibility of much of the species' range—particularly the central Amazon—estimating jaguar numbers is difficult. Researchers typically focus on particular bioregions, and thus species-wide analysis is scant. In 1991, 600–1,000 (the highest total) were estimated to be living in Belize. A year earlier, 125–180 jaguars were estimated to be living in Mexico's 4,000 square kilometer (2400 mi²) Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, with another 350 in the state of Chiapas. The adjoining Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala, with an area measuring 15,000 square kilometers (9,000 mi²), may have 465–550 animals. Work employing GPS–telemetry in 2003 and 2004 found densities of only six to seven jaguars per 100 square kilometers in the critical Pantanal region, compared with 10 to 11 using traditional methods; this suggests that widely used sampling methods may inflate the actual numbers of cats. On 7 January 2008 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Director H. Dale Hall approved a decision by the George W. Bush Administration to abandon jaguar recovery as a federal goal under the Endangered Species Act. Some critics of the decision said that the jaguar is being sacrificed for the government's new border fence, which is to be built along many of the cat's typical crossings between the United States and Mexico. In the past, conservation of jaguars sometimes occurred through the protection of jaguar "hotspots". These hotspots were described as Jaguar Conservation Units, and were large areas populated by about 50 jaguars. However, some researchers recently determined that, in order to maintain a robust sharing of the jaguar gene pool necessary for maintaining the species, it is important that the jaguars be interconnected. To effect this, a new project, the Paseo del Jaguar, as been established to connect the jaguar hotspots. Fonte-Wikipedia.
I fall in love with this elegance QVB...Explore June 9, 2011 Thank you:)
Explore # 122 June 9, 2011 The Queen Victoria Building, now affectionately known as the QVB, was designed by George McRae and completed in 1898, replacing the original Sydney markets on the site. Built as a monument to the long reigning monarch, construction took place in dire times, as Sydney was in a severe recession. The elaborate Romanesque architecture was specially planned for the grand building so the Government could employ many out-of-work craftsmen - stonemasons, plasterers, and stained window artists - in a worthwhile project. Originally, a concert hall, coffee shops, offices, showrooms, warehouses and a wide variety of tradespeople, such as tailors, mercers, hairdressers and florists, were accommodated. Thank you to exchanged your great artwork:) My stream: www.darckr.com/username?username=11569107%40N06 My explore: bighugelabs.com/scout.php?username=11569107%40N06&sor...
CBD & South East Light Rail - George Street - Update 12 March 2018 (6)
A walk between Hunter Street and Rawson Place shows the observer that work continues apace on George Street. Towards Town Hall and St Andrew's Cathedral
CBD & South East Light Rail - George Street, outside Town Hall - Update 15 December 2016
Rainy weather hadn't deterred the team laying track outside Sydney Town Hall. When complete, within days, this will be the first track laid in George Street. Sydney Light Rail advises that track laying will commence along George Street early in 2017.
QVB Sydney Since first opening in 1898, the QVB has had a mercurial history. Designed by George McRae, it replaced the original Sydney Markets and was named to honour the monarch's Diamond Jubilee. Elaborate Romanesque architecture was chosen for the grand building, which housed a concert hall, coffee shops, showrooms, warehouses and a wide variety of tradespeople. Over many decades, the concert hall became the city library, offices proliferated and many tenants moved in. Drastic Art Deco 'remodelling' occurred during the 1930s to accommodate the main occupant - Sydney City Council. From 1959 to 1971, the QVB faced near-demolition. A massive restoration project was given the green light and, in 1982, Ipoh Garden was awarded the restoration project and a 99-year lease. The fully restored Queen Victoria Building reopened her doors to Sydneysiders and visitors alike in 1986. A major refurbishment in 2009 restored her even further. Today the QVB stands in all her glory, testimony to the original vision for the building and the superb craftsmanship of the artisans who put it all back together again. I have captured her today afternoon by Nikon D90. Thank you to keep in touch my lovely friends:) My stream: www.darckr.com/username?username=11569107%40N06